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Everyone fit may be left to fly or flounder as adults, but everyone had better be getting a first class public education, the vote, and access, if needed, to government-funded food, shelter, and medical care until they are adults. I don’t support the idea that selective breeding has somehow justified unequal opportunity for American children. That’s incompatible with American freedom. Find effective treatments online everyday with buy viagra so that you can ease symptoms while accessing excellent and convenience are the main reasons for buying tadalafil is so much less that people prefer to shop online.

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That’s just scratching the surface. I asked a few NBA types to comment on five of the most intriguing storylines of the season. Here’s what they said:. Manny is on fire in the gym. They were perfect for testing the strategy Freddie and I have developed to beat Floyd Mayweather.

I’m not saying his newborn son has the supernatural ability to illicit great play from his dad, but it can’t be ruled out. With all of the positives to be derived from this game, it might be easy to overlook James Johnson’s stat line: 0 points, 0 rebounds, 0 assists and one big fat “DNP-CD.

You could make a case that his perimeter defense wasn’t necessary against the likes of , and although the trio wasn’t exactly stymied at the point of penetration by the Raptors perimeter guys. And you could even argue that Johnson’s slashing and post skills didn’t match up well against a Pacers defense which funnels action towards the towering Hibbert. However, the final month of the season – especially for a struggling team – should be about finding a groove heading into the playoffs; establishing the playoff rotation is a big part of that.

Given that Johnson was brought back to Toronto almost as a direct response to last spring’s Joe Johnson Massacre, it’s concerning that Casey can’t find a consistent role for him to fill. He’s going to be needed in the playoffs. The strange misuse of the team’s best perimeter defender aside though, this game has to incite some hope among the team and fans as the season winds down.

The Raptors’ previous two wins over the Pacers came during each of the team’s two longest win streaks of the season. Here’s hoping this win is the start of a third such streak. What did you think of tonight’s win? The world is packed full of so many dope and rather unique spots to stay, why go for the average? Well today we get a look at something unique and certainly above average, letting you really get into the bush and enjoy some rural tottenham away jersey long sleeve time.

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Today, a spokesman confirmed to Philadelphia magazine that Blatstein will hold a press conference next month at the Pier Shops. This morning, the Press of Atlantic City reported Blatstein and told them things with Caesars were being settled.

The press conference is set for noon on April 1st. Blatstein last year, with a scheduled for February. The presser. Blatstein, in turn, and submitted dozens of letters from store owners in support of his plans for the pier. As I wrote in a , the mall was viewed as a “high risk” idea. Its storefronts are now nearly half-empty — also, the fountain at the end of the pier has been removed — though the mall still draws crowds especially on weekends.

The Apple Store is always hopping. We’ll have more on Blatstein’s plans for the Pier Shops when he holds his press event on April 1st. Follow on Twitter. With a cigarette dangling from his mouth and an unorthodox golf swing, he was one of them. Joe and Minnie Sixpack absolutely adored him. Minnie loved him because of his rugged good lucks and muscled physique; Joe loved him because he could envision Arnie plopping down on the bar stool next to him at the 19th hole. And we love him here in Central Florida because, well, he loves us.

And always has. In fact, it was love at first sight when Arnie first laid eyes on Orlando. This was all orange groves and two-lane roads when we started, Arnie remembered Wednesday during his pre-tournament news conference. We were here before Disney. Arnie then told the story of the first time he came to Orlando.

He was a sophomore golfer at Wake Forest in when his team came to town for a match against. Arnie was so taken aback by the beauty of the area and the girls that he considered transferring to Rollins.

Even though he ended up staying at Wake, he knew someday he would return to Orlando. That day came in when the original developers of Bay Hill, invited Arnie, Jack Nicklaus, Don Cherry and Dave Ragan to town for an exhibition match to promote their new course.

Arnie fell in love with Orlando all over again that day. He routed everybody in the exhibition by shooting a 66 seven strokes better than the second-place Nicklaus.

Five years later, Arnie would end up buying Bay Hill. And the rest is not only Central Florida sports history; it’s Florida sports history. Arnie not only brought golf to the masses; he brought it to the Sunshine State.

He turned Florida into the golf capital of the world. When Arnie moved here and made Bay Hill famous, other professional golfers began moving here. Other golf enclaves sprung up at Isleworth and Lake Nona. Nicklaus moved to Jupiter. Unlike our city’s other sports superstars see Shaq, Dwight and who came and went, Arnie came and stayed. He invested in Orlando, and he contributed to Orlando. He helped build one of the premier events on the PGA Tour here and, more importantly, he helped build one of the most renowned children’s hospitals in the world here.

Arnie’s aperture for generosity is wide open, said Tom Ridge, a longtime friend and the former United States Director of Homeland Security. Ridge is in town this week to attend the tournament at Bay Hill a tournament named after the man we all know and love. Except we don’t know that man as Arnold Palmer; we know him simply as Arnie.

The Arnie. A cool new name to reflect the coolest man the game has ever known. Follow him on Twitter at BianchiWrites. Listen to his radio show every weekday from 6 to 9 a. Copyright ,. Investigators are reportedly trying to capture texts between the two that go back months and months. Sources say the investigation focuses on text messages between a teacher at Pine Richland High School and a year-old female student.

Sources tell KDKA-TV the alleged text messages from the teacher commented on the girl s appearance and clothing and her personal life. The group launched from a Vancouver living room in Vancouver is also the home of environmental pioneer David Suzuki, a retired professor from the University of British Columbia UBC who has been writing about sustainable ecology for more than 30 years.

The Green Party www. Alberta and British Columbia offered the strongest support, Manitoba the least. Apparently not. Meanwhile, the clock ticks. The average annual temperature has increased by 0. Take the Yukon. Shorter winters have dissolved their ice-based seal-hunting habitat, and all of a sudden, nearby humans are starting to look like juicy T-bones Click here for more.

Climate change also has bizarre economic ramifications. And the Olympics are headed to Vancouver in , but will there be enough snow for the slopes and bobsleigh runs? Take as much as you want! In the early s, Atlantic Canada faced the horrifying fact that the cod were fished out. The greatest fishery in the world, in business for more than years, was now kaput.

Cod were even listed as endangered in For additional information, Click here. Polar Bear, meet Walrus. They used to be strangers, until global warming brought their habitats together. Most hiking and camping advice is common sense. First, know what you are getting into. Get trail maps and take a few minutes to talk to a ranger about trail conditions, dangers and closures.

Rangers can also confirm if your abilities and equipment match the needs of your trip. Once in the wild, do everything possible to minimize your impact. Stick to established trails and campgrounds. Use a gas stove for cooking or make fires in established fire pits only. When you leave, take out everything you brought in and remove every trace of your visit. Try to learn about local conservation, environmental and cultural issues before your trip and during your visit.

Ask questions and listen to what locals have to say. And finally, support tourism companies and environmental groups that promote conservation initiatives and long-term management plans. Along the same lines, companies strip huge areas of forest and soil cover to access coal, iron, nickel and other mineral resources. These ore deposits are developed all the time, particularly in seldom-visited northern regions such as Labrador and the Northwest Territories, where there is little public scrutiny or attention.

Recently there has been a spate of oil and natural gas development in the Atlantic provinces, much of it on the ocean floor, with untold consequences for marine life for an example of such actions, Click here. In northern Alberta, oil is coaxed from oil sands, a messy process that requires huge amounts of energy and poisons the atmosphere with greenhouse gases Click here for more.

Nearby, plans are underway for a controversial km-long pipeline, the Mackenzie Gas Project, to be tunneled beneath the wilderness of the Northwest Territories. Their website www. Is that good enough? Stay tuned. Not even close. And I can explain it all in two simple words: endless and staggering. No matter what your ability, no matter what your taste, there is something here for you.

Adventures for the rank beginner or the seasoned veteran are all over the place, even just on the edge of, and sometimes within, city limits. Whatever outdoor activity you can imagine, it exists in the highest of quality, right here in Canada.

But, for nearly half the year, much of Canada really is snow-covered, and hockey and beer-drinking really are favorite pastimes. But there is so much more here than that oversimplified pictorial and those stereotypical flannels.

Welcome to the most abundant, most breathtaking, least busy playground on the planet. Welcome to half the world.

Hills in the flatlands, like Saskatchewan and southern Ontario, are built on available or creatively used geography river hills or garbage dumps.

Damn cold. But instead of complaining about it, Canadians are apt to do something in it. Find a snow-covered hill not too big and slide uncontrollably downhill. Combine this motorized activity with backcountry skiing to access tons of powder. Canadians have a chronic fishing problem. Fish from inside an ice shack, drill into the ice, turn on the space heater and drop your line. Snowpack ranges from 2m to 6m-plus, depending on how close the resort is to the Pacific Ocean.

Medicine Hat, Alberta, with days sans rain. Cross-Country Nordic Skiing Instead of swishing through the snow, go straight on a set of Nordic skis. Most ski resorts in Canada offer a groomed network of cross-country ski trails which are much cheaper than a downhill lift ticket. Compare lung capacity with Canadian national team members at the Olympic site in Canmore, Alberta. Ski Touring Ski touring, downhill skiing with a backpack instead of a lift, is the cheapest way to tap into the deep and dry snow that is world-renowned in BC.

Rogers Pass in Glacier National Park has the most beautiful glacier tours and tree skiing within a single-day tour. Or fly into a backcountry lodge like Blanket Glacier Chalet www. BC towns like Revelstoke, Nelson and Golden are touring hubs and have a number of shops that can provide gear, maps and information on snow conditions, where to park etc.

That said, Canada has revolutionized mountain biking and provides an expansive landscape for two-wheeled exploration.

The entire 18,km trail some of it river routes will link communities from coast to coast to coast and provide for multi-use access to cyclists, snowmobilers, horseback riders and hikers. Check www. Most popular ski areas like Panorama www. Or you could choose shorter regional rides. The east coast, with more small towns and less emptiness, is a fantastic place to pedal, either as a single-day road ride or a multi-day trip.

Sure, we use plastic and fiberglass today, but boat design and techniques have hardly changed. No longer used for hunting, this double-bladed, covered-deck paddlesport is still the most efficient human-powered way to move across lakes and along coastlines.

Make sure you have a solid Eskimo Roll for righting yourself when you flip. Luckily www. As old as kayaking, and equally Canadian, is the canoe. Travel a thousand miles by train and you are a brute; pedal five hundred on a bicycle and you remain basically a bourgeois; paddle a hundred in a canoe and you are already a child of nature. Here are some of our favorites, to help you decide which way to turn your toes.

Also, k. Also visit the Parks Canada site www. Watch wild animals, cross unbridged rivers and see not a soul. Access is via Whitehorse. Take a compass and GPS; the alpine plateau is crisscrossed by a web of caribou trails.

An offshoot will head northwards from Calgary through the Yukon to Tuktoyaktuk in the Northwest Territories, with a branch extending east through Nunavut to Chesterfield Inlet on Hudson Bay. The TCT will be the longest such trail in the world, linking millions of travelers, hundreds of communities and dozens of landscapes. Its entire length will take about days to cycle, days to ride on horseback or days to walk. The now-disbanded organization in charge of the celebrations wanted to leave a lasting legacy, and provided enough seed money to launch the project in This entitles them to have their name inscribed on one of dozens of Trail Pavilions along the route.

So far approximately , people have immortalized themselves in this fashion. The TCT is knitted together from existing and new trails. Much of it, including all of the Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island sections, will run along former railway tracks. For now, the TCT remains a work in progress.

More than half of it is currently unstable; it is scheduled for completion in the fall of From here you can march through dense spruce and pine forests that burst into a stunning bright-yellow canopy in the fall. Then ascend into alpine meadows that are carpeted with wildflowers and surrounded by crumbling glaciers and azure lakes.

This trail network weaves together pristine lakes with some of the largest peaks in the Rockies. And the BC Parks system www. There are sizable mountains out east, too. For the serious backpacker looking for the least beaten path and the biggest mountains east of the Canadian Rockies, plan on visiting Torngat Mountain National Park in Labrador. Though portions are near cities like Hamilton and Toronto, it is surprisingly serene.

Backroad Mapbooks will show you the way. Outdoor recreation and camping overviews accompany each book, but make sure you cross-reference with the locals. Canmore, just outside Banff, is the ideal place for beginners and beyond. Climbing shops, a climbing school www. All levels of climbers bask in the spring sun while climbing the plus gneiss and nice, too! It features hundreds of tours, from day trips to summit missions to epic traverses.

While Canadians are practically born on skates, it might take you a couple of hours to get the hang of it. Skating has spawned many a Canadian pastime and takes regional forms. Grassroots hockey, aka pond hockey, takes place in communities across Canada every night on a frozen surface. All you need is a puck, a hockey stick and a few friends to live the hockey dream. Winnipeg, Manitoba, notorious for chilly winters, has 3km of cleared ice on the Assiniboine and Red rivers.

In Alberta, you can race in the Sylvan Lake 50km Marathon on a 10km track, the longest in the world. They just don a pair of warm mitts, a down jacket, crampons and an ice axe, and are pretty well ready to take on the most abundant and consistent ice climbing in the world.

Banff, Kootenay, Yoho and Jasper national parks remain frozen for six months a year, and by early November notorious routes like Polar Circus and Curtain Call are in full form. As in summer, Canmore is the place to get started and take a lesson. With www. Great for climbers, hikers and sightseers. Give yourself a couple of weeks to work your way up ft or m this ice-riddled Kluane National Park massif.

For better odds all around, watch out for the more common and visible Canadian critters. The Arctic has tusked narwhals and belugas, while Nova Scotia has humpbacks, minkes and the rare North Atlantic right whale. Polar bear can be spotted in Churchill, Manitoba on the shores of Hudson Bay. Operators will tour you around the Polar Bear Capital of the World in elevated tundra buggies. At one time 60 million bison roamed the North American plains.

Over 50 grizzlies live on this 45,hectare refuge. A few eco-tour operators have permits for viewing this at-risk species. The mountain national parks Banff, Jasper, Kooteany, Yoho also offer a chance to see these rare omnivores. But driving, hiking or cycling in Algonquin Provincial Park is a golden opportunity to see each and every one.

Return to beginning of chapter FISHING It should probably come as no surprise that some of the best fishing in the world can be found in a country that harbors more freshwater than any other.

Elaborate native societies based their entire nutritional structure around fish, and fishing has since become a sacred recreation. Calgary Stampede www. Logger Sports www. See pros carve chairs, hand-saw at lightning speeds and cut trees with pinpoint precision in this heritage event held in Squamish, BC, in the first week of August. Yukon Quest www. Survivor Kananaskis www. Last one standing wins. Held the last weekend in May on the Kananaskis River, one hour west of Calgary.

Less controversial than a hockey scrum, fights at the end of a fishing line are equally exciting. The fiercer, the longer and the more unpredictable the fish fight, the better.

And on just about any Canadian freshwater lake, you could get yourself into a serious brouhaha. Northern Saskatchewan contains some of the most productive lakes, and many are serviced by fishing lodges. Check local, provincial and federal fishing regulations wherever you are; most hardware or fishing shops can tell you everything there is to know.

Scuba divers can become one with one of the most abundant and diverse marine areas on earth from the perfectly-placed ocean cities of Vancouver and Victoria. Ocean life here also benefits from the cold, nutrient-rich water.

June and September are best for mere mortals, but if you want to test some of the fiercest storms the Pacific can dish out, try surfing in winter. First-timers will enjoy the challenge with many great surf schools both east and west.

Tofino, outside Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, has a superb choice of surf schools and offers the most variety for learning. Squamish, BC Click here, benefits greatly from a wind-funneling venturi effect, which gets wild in Howe Sound.

No trees hold back the wind; only power-generating wind farms compete for a chunk of the gust. Sheltered lagoons offer safe learning locations for testing kiteboards or seeking shelter during heavy days. Today, horses help all kinds of people, from couch potatoes to the uberactive, get out to enjoy the landscape. Be ready to get down and dirty. Most Ontarians live in the south within a few hundred kilometers of the US border, where winters are bearable and steamy summers lure folks outside.

No longer a steadfast political filing cabinet, contemporary Ottawa is as hip as you want it to be. Year-round, Ontario celebrates its diversity with a cavalcade of festivals. And if you must seek out wildlife, there are some excellent national parks here too. The first Europeans on the scene were 17th-century French fur traders, who established basic forts to facilitate trade links with the Mississippi River.

With the arrival of the British Loyalists around , large-scale settlement began. The northern continental climate sees bitterly cold winters and mild summers.

This creates steady precipitation throughout the year, heavy summer humidity and much milder winters than in the north. That said, the entire province is blanketed with heavy snowfalls during winter.

In the south, where most of the population lives, winter snow melts rapidly in spring. As summer draws closer, the strip of land bordering the USA gets increasingly hot and sticky, particularly the Niagara Peninsula. There are also provincial parks here, offering hiking and camping facilities. Make reservations with Ontario Parks ; www. Charismatic megafauna has largely been evicted from southern Ontario due to development and agriculture, but the further north you travel, the more likely you are to spot hairy roadside individuals no, not lumberjacks.

Two Weeks Feel like a road trip? Heading northwest, take a paddle through the expansive Algonquin Provincial Park, visit Manitoulin Island for a dose of aboriginal culture, and try Sudbury and Sault Ste Marie for a history lesson on shipping and mining in northern Ontario.

Continue westward and base yourself in Wawa for a few days. Greater expanses of unexplored nature lie ahead as you roll on toward Thunder Bay and beyond. Air Canada www. CanJet www. First Air www. BUS Greyhound Canada www.

Booking bus tickets at least seven days in advance can sometimes halve the fare. The big car-hire companies have offices in larger towns. Click here for key highways.

Ontario Northland www. Its Northlander service connects Toronto with Cochrane, from where buses go to Hearst and Kapuskasing. Dramatic shifts in weather elicit almost schizophrenic behavior from the locals. Humidity clogs the avenues and the streetlife hum approaches a roar. Spanked across the face by bitter February, locals head underground into the PATH network of subterranean walkways.

And of course, winter is hockey season! Overlayed by typically laconic Canadian attitude, Toronto is as unpretentious and tolerant as it is complex. Tommy Thompson Park, an artificial wildlife oasis, juts abstractly into Lake Ontario; the Toronto Islands rustle their leafy boughs at the city skyline.

In the British took over and John Simcoe, lieutenant governor of the new Upper Canada, chose the site as the capital formerly at Niagara-on-the-Lake and founded the town of York. The Americans looted and razed York, but held sway for only six days before Canadian troops booted them out and hounded them back to Washington.

Like many big cities, Toronto had a great fire; in about five hectares of the inner city burned, leveling buildings. Amazingly, no one was killed. Well over one million immigrants have arrived since: Italian, Portuguese, Chilean, Greek, Southeast Asian, Chinese and West Indian immigrants have rolled into the city in waves. Just offshore are the Toronto Islands. The Church-Wellesley Village is a gay parallel universe a few blocks to the east.

Lester B Pearson International Airport is 27km west of downtown. MapArt www. Shuffle over to St Lawrence Market for lunch then head up to Bloor-Yorkville to splash some cash in the shops.

Compensate with a thrifty dinner in Chinatown. Afterwards, ride the ferry to the Toronto Islands; hire a bike and wheel away the afternoon. Back on the mainland, nibble on late-night mezes Greek tapas and drinks in Greektown. A trashy night club-hopping through the Entertainment District is a mandatory T. TheatreBooks Map; ; www.

Metro www. Now Toronto www. Toronto Life www. Toronto Star www. Vancouver International Jazz Festival ; www. Alcan Dragon Boat Festival ; www.

Canada Day ; www. Vancouver Folk Music Festival ; www. Celebration of Light ; www. Pride Week ; www. Festival Vancouver ; www. Pacific National Exhibition ; www. Vancouver International Fringe Festival ; www. Vancouver International Film Festival ; www.

Vancouver International Writers Festival ; www. Santa Claus Parade Christmas procession in mid-November, complete with the great man himself. While rates peak in the summer months, there are some great deals available in fall and early spring when the weather is often amenable and the tourist crowds mercifully reduced.

The website of Tourism Vancouver www. HI Vancouver Central Map; , ; www. Rates include continental buffet breakfast. Moda Hotel Map; , ; www. The new rooms have loungey flourishes like mod furnishings and bold paintwork and the bathrooms have been given a swanky makeover. The flat-screen TVs are a nice touch if you decide to have a night in.

Comfort Inn Downtown Map; , ; www. The corner suites, with fireplaces and Jacuzzi tubs, are the best rooms. Kingston Hotel Map; , ; www. The friendly staff is second to none, the rooms are stuffed with reproduction antiques and the balconies enable you to smirk at the grubby plebs shuffling past below.

Steam up your monocle with a trip to the spa where a Shiatsu massage should work off those sore shopping muscles. The dorms are all small and added extras range from bike rentals to internet-access computers.

Rates include continental breakfast. Buchan Hotel Map; , ; www. The smiley front-desk staff is excellent and there are storage facilities for bikes and skis. Tropicana Suite Hotel Map; ; www. Blue Horizon Hotel Map; , ; www. Sylvia Hotel Map; ; www. The best rooms are the 12 apartment suites, each with full kitchens and panoramic waterfront views. Listel Vancouver Map; , ; www. Victorian Hotel Map; , ; www. Most are en suite with summer fans, TVs and robes provided but the best rooms are in the extension, complete with its marble-floored bathrooms.

St Regis Hotel Map; , ; www. Rates include continental breakfast, access to a small on-site business center and entry to the gym across the street. Georgian Court Hotel Map; , ; www. The spruced-up standard rooms have new carpets and curtains but the apartment-style corner suites, with their quiet, recessed bedrooms, are recommended. Opus Hotel Vancouver Map; , ; www. Outdoors types can rent bikes and sports equipment on site or stroll to the nearby kayaking and surfing operators.

Your cooked breakfast is served in the high-ceilinged dining room downstairs. Family-friendly, the hosts can supply toys, cribs and even babysitters.

Granville Island Hotel Map; , ; www. The top-floor penthouse has a nice private balcony while the downstairs Garden Suite has a kitchenette. Shaughnessy Village Map; ; www. Despite the retro approach, the hotel is perfectly ship-shape, right down to its clean, well-maintained rooms. Extras include cooked breakfasts, an outdoor pool, large laundry and an on-site hairdresser where you can book that beehive hairdo you always wanted.

The standard rooms, complete with IKEA-esque furnishings, all have fridges and en suites, while the larger two-bedroom suites have handy kitchenettes. The building has a coffee shop and a coin-operated laundry and there are several UBC restaurants within walking distance. Head to the decadent mezzanine level where you can lie down and feed like a king. Encouraging diners to be adventurous and share the unfamiliar French-influenced dishes with their friends, highlights here include tempura-battered olives and duck confit with liquefied foie gras.

Scallops wrapped in octopus bacon and served with foie gras is a signature, deceptively uncomplicated dishes of side stripe prawns and Queen Charlotte scallops are highly recommended. Chef Rob Clark spearheads a local drive against farmed salmon and only uses superior-tasting wild sockeye. The animated youngsters come for the laid-back vibe and ever-popular spicy chicken stir-fry signature but the squid alternative is also recommended if you fancy something different.

If you can pull yourself away from the vistas, dip into gourmet comfort dishes like bison strip loin and prosciutto-wrapped salmon. Reservations recommended, especially if you want to sit on the patio with the likes of Halle Berry and Robin Williams. Mimicking the diet of its namesake, nothing is cooked, leading to innovative treats like crunchy lasagna strips of zucchini substitute for pasta and pizza made from a dehydrated-seed crust and topped with tomato sauce, tenderized zucchini and mashed avocado.

Save room for an icy almond shake dessert. With lots of vegetarian options, try the feastlike Plato Mixteco if you want to share.

Pull up a bar stool at the long table and choose from the blackboard of cured meats and local cheeses, accompanied by a glass or two of great wine. Restoring the social aspect to dining, the warm room is usually noisy with chat by the end of the night.

Dishes range from satisfying dim sum to steaming wonton soup bowls, bobbing with juicy dumplings. Try the congee rice porridge: a fancy-free soul food dish that takes three hours to prepare and comes in seafood, chicken and beef varieties.

Wild boar with jasmine rice and plantain chips is particularly recommended, as is the comprehensive martini list. This is a popular late-night hangout on Fridays and Saturdays. Combining a rustic Latin American ambiance with a roster of satisfying Afro-Cuban-Southern soul-food dishes, highlights range from yam fries to slow-roasted lamb curry and a shellfish platter of clams, mussels and oysters.

Favored by in-the-know locals, hence the frequent line-ups, all dishes are made to order and include house-chopped coleslaw. Both rooms have an intimate, wood-lined feel with their shared waterfront patio becoming a chatty al fresco hangout on most summer evenings. The oysters, best enjoyed on the rooftop deck, are recommended and the strong wine list is something to write home about. Live music is served up Thursday to Saturday when the urban professionals drop by and loosen their ties.

But the menu and weekend brunch queues show that these guys mean business, encouraging legions of repeat diners who keep coming back for stuffed quesadillas, hearty Farmers Breakfasts and sesame-fried potatoes with miso gravy.

Consider coming back later in the day for a slice of mountain-sized apple pie. If not, console yourself with some Okanagan cherry tart. The maplewood sushi bar seats here are more sought-after than a couple of front-row Stanley Cup tickets, so reserve as early as possible and make sure you sample a selection or two from the sake menu. The great and good come to sip alongside live soul music on Monday and Tuesday, while Thursday to Saturday combines house and Top 40 tunes on the dance floor.

Serves gourmet pub grub like smoky-bacon-and-gorgonzola burgers alongside exotic European brews like Belgian cherry beer. Honey Map; ; Abbott St; noon-late A refreshing alternative to the Granville St party rabble, this resto-lounge venue transforms into a club on weekends and is especially renowned for its Friday-night Mod Club, when a welcoming and pretense-free crowd of young coolsters dresses up for a night of pop-soul-and-everything-else partying.

Good drinks specials, too. A comfort food menu perfectly matches the drinks selection of fortifying martinis. Work your way down the list, sink further into your comfy chair and try to figure out what the giant swirly glass thing above the bar is supposed to be. Both bars were planning a possible move across the street on our visit.

Seventy Two Sports Bar Map; ; Robson St; ampm Right in the heart of Robson St, you can pull up a patio chair on the 2nd floor here and still hear the chatty shoppers shuffling past below. The signature beer here is Lions Gate Lager, a good summer tipple. The menu is packed with pub standards, but the pizzas are a stand-out.

Tickets for many events are available from Ticketmaster performing arts , concerts , sports ; www. At the time, pilots considered it the best-lit city in North America. Complete with a bouncy dance floor, it showcases great visiting bands and the best in local talent.

Across the street, the Plaza Club Map; www. The venue hosts a varied array of rising and smaller visiting talent. Blues fans should head along Granville to the Yale Map; ; www. Popular world classics and works by contemporary Canadian playwrights are also part of the mix offered by the Arts Club Theatre Company ; www. Those looking for more challenging fare might prefer the Firehall Arts Centre Map; ; www. For multiplex movie fans, the Scotiabank Theatre Map; ; www. Mixing its own blockbuster offerings with festival flicks, Tinseltown Cinemas Map; ; www.

The innovative Scotiabank Dance Centre Map; ; www. Ballet BC ; www. Sports The Vancouver Canucks ; www. Book your seat at their GM Place Map; ; www.

They play at the Pacific Coliseum, east of downtown. And if you want to see the Vancouver Whitecaps ; www. Markets Chinatown Night Market Map; ; www. These sites include BC Place, which will host the opening and closing ceremonies as well as nightly medal presentations; Pacific Coliseum in Hastings Park, which will host figure skating, short-track and speed-skating; the UBC Winter Sports Centre, which will host hockey and Paralympic sledge hockey; Hillcrest Curling Centre, which will host curling and wheelchair curling; GM Place, which will host ice hockey; Cypress Mountain, which will host freestyle skiing and snowboard; and the Richmond Speed Skating Oval, which will be the home of long-track speed-skating.

Other events will take place in and around Whistler. Highlights can include crunchy apples, lush peaches and juicy blueberries; home-baked cakes and treats are frequent accompaniments. Vancouver Flea Market Map; ; www. Its barnlike venue near the Main St SkyTrain station houses dozens of semiprofessional and amateur hawkers, giving it the feel of a sprawling indoor garage sale.

Dream Designs Map; ; Commercial Dr; 10am-6pm Mon-Sat, am-5pm Sun Visiting greenies will enjoy dipping into this small organic home store that sells everything from yoga knick knacks to linen pajamas and hemp bed-sheets.

Check out the local pottery selection and enjoy a calming chat with the staff about your favorite natural spa treatments. Check out the narrow aisles of international condiments, then start building your ideal picnic from the impressive bread, cheese and cold-cuts selection. Next stop: years of addiction therapy. Intra-Canada flights include regular Westjet ; www.

Linked to the main airport by shuttle bus, the South Terminal receives BC-only flights from smaller airlines and floatplane operators. These include frequent Harbour Air Seaplanes , ; www. Boat BC Ferries , ; www. Services also arrive here from the Southern Gulf Islands. Greyhound Canada ; www. Perimeter Tours , ; www. Quick Coach Lines , ; www. If you want to go downtown, turn left onto Hastings and follow it into the city center, or continue on along the North Shore toward Whistler.

All the recognized car rental chains Click here have Vancouver branches. VIA Rail ; www. Amtrak ; www. Note that only the first service of the day from Seattle is by train, with buses used for the remaining four services. Alternatively, the Vancouver Airporter , ; www. Bicycle With routes running across town, Vancouver is a relatively good cycling city. Cyclists can take their bikes for free on SkyTrains, SeaBuses and rack-fitted transit buses. Bike rentals: Reckless Bike Stores Map; ; www.

Spokes Bicycle Rental Map; ; www. Its cutthroat rival is False Creek Ferries Map; ; www. Try the alternative Second Narrows Bridge. Parking is at a premium downtown: there are few free spots available on residential side streets and traffic wardens are predictably predatory. Underground parking at either Pacific Centre shopping mall or the Central Library will have you in the heart of the city.

Public Transportation The website for TransLink ; www. A ticket bought on any of the three services is valid for 90 minutes of travel on the entire network, depending on the zone you intend to travel in. The three zones become progressively more expensive the further you journey. Many buses have bike racks and are wheelchair accessible. Exact change or more is required since all buses use fare machines and change is not given. These buses have their own limited arrival and departure points and do not use regular bus stops.

There is also a route night bus system that runs every 30 minutes between am and 4am across the Lower Mainland. The last bus leaves downtown Vancouver at am. Look for the night-bus signs at designated stops. The original minute Expo Line takes passengers to and from downtown Vancouver and Surrey, via stops throughout Burnaby and New Westminster. The newer Millennium Line alights near shopping malls and suburban residential districts in Coquitlam and Burnaby. Trains depart every two to eight minutes between 5am and am Monday to Friday 6am to am Saturday, 7am to pm Sun.

All SkyTrain services are wheelchair accessible. Services depart from Waterfront Station between am and am Monday to Saturday am to pm Sunday. Vessels are wheelchair accessible and bike-friendly. For green travelers, Yellow Cab has a large fleet of low-emission vehicles. A drive or transit trek over the soaring Lions Gate Bridge will deliver you to the forest-fringed doorstep of North Vancouver and West Vancouver, complete with their outdoors attractions and waterfront views, while a short-hop ferry from Horseshoe Bay takes you over to Bowen Island for a rustic day excursion.

For information on what to do here, check out the municipal website www. The grounds also include rainforest walks, totem poles and a swinging network of smaller cable bridges strung between the trees. In summer, Skyride gondola passengers can access mountain restaurants, lumberjack shows, alpine hiking trails and a grizzly-bear refuge. You can also harden your calf muscles on the Grouse Grind, a steep 2. There are also plenty of excellent hiking trails and some great picnic spots.

Like Grouse, the area transforms in winter, when Mt Seymour Resorts ; www. It has a playground, outdoor pool and free continental breakfast. Lonsdale Quay Hotel Map; ; www. Interiors will be familiar to the business-traveler crowd but there are also two colorful family rooms with bunk beds and bath toys. There are plenty of shops and restaurants nearby to keep you occupied. Quality pub food in a ski-lodge setting. From the bus terminal at the quay, bus runs to Capilano Suspension Bridge then up to the base of Grouse Mountain.

Rocky Mountaineer Vacations runs its popular Whistler Mountaineer , ; www. You can check out all the local information and parochial intrigue at the city council www. About 13km of hiking trails crisscross the area, including a recommended trek that leads to Point Atkinson Lighthouse and some shimmering views across lovely Burrard Inlet. Each suite has a fridge and DVD player, as well as a decanter of sherry for that essential al fresco evening tipple. You can sober up with a stroll to nearby Point Atkinson Lighthouse.

Proving just how authentic the food is, there are usually a few expat Iranians here, tucking into large platters of Barbary bread with eggplant dip and long-simmered stews. The recommended fish, chicken and beef kabobs dominate the menu.

You can also catch a minute ferry ride to Bowen Island from here. For Horseshoe Bay information, check www. Bowen Island has its own Visitor Centre ; www. West of Horseshoe Bay, Whytecliff Park off Map; ; block Marine Dr attracts scuba divers to its protected waters, hikers to its rocky trails and rock climbers to its granite cliffs.

Hiking trails and picnic grounds similarly abound on Bowen. Scenic kayaking tours are offered by Bowen Island Sea Kayaking , ; www.

Carrying 22 million passengers a year, the BC Ferries system has a few unusual stories to tell. There have been 21 on-board births, several weddings and a missing dog that disappeared from a boat in , only to arrive bedraggled on Bowen Island two days later, following an exhausting doggy paddle.

Pub grub is the main focus here and the fish and chips are recommended. BC Ferries , ; www. In addition, a handful of attractions aim to keep you away from the shops. For information, contact Tourism Burnaby ; www. Offering a peaceful environment minus the hectic energy of downtown, the pathways of Deer Lake Park Map crisscross the meadows and woodlands, circling the lake where fowl and other wildlife hang out.

The adjoining Burnaby Village Museum Map; ; www. To get there, take the Sperling Ave exit off Hwy 1 and follow the museum signs. An ever-expanding homage to materialism, Metropolis at Metrotown Map; ; www.

The mall is a minute SkyTrain ride from downtown Vancouver. For information, drop into the Visitor Centre Map; , ; www. At the time of writing, the market was considering a new location: check its website for location updates before you set off.

Kuan Yin Temple Map; ; www. Rooms are tastefully lined with reproduction antiques and landscape paintings. The best feature is the chintzy guest lounge, which opens directly onto a large, secluded swimming pool. Fairmont Vancouver Airport Map; , ; www. A great option for boarding your long-haul flight in trance-like state of calm.

The rooms are elegantly furnished with high-end flourishes including remote-controlled drapes and marble-lined bathrooms. The giant, naturally occurring Buntzen Lake off Map; reservoir is surrounded on three sides by steep, tree-covered mountains and on its fourth side by a gently curving beach, complete with picnic tables, old-growth trees and those ambling, ever-present Canada geese.

Take the Ioco exit and follow Ioco Rd to the left. Turn right on First Ave and continue to Sunnyside Rd. Turn right again and continue to the Buntzen Lake entrance. The journey should take around an hour. It can get crowded here in summer, so arrive early if you want your pick of the picnic tables. In this respect, we can implicitly connect translation history to international pathways of abolitionist discourse more broadly. Another popular Spanish translation of , by Wenceslao Ayguals de Izco, was also framed within a liberal and anticlerical secular ideology.

In many places, especially where print literacy was not widespread, these adaptations were more influential than the novel in mediating local politics. The French theatrical adaptation by Phillipe Dumanoir and Adolphe Dennery, analyzed by Emily Sahakian, was translated and performed in Spain in , reached Brazil in , and toured around Brazil and Portugal after its opening in Rio de Janeiro in Just as the adapter or translator supplies vernacular genres as well as referents, the reader or viewer latches onto local meanings.

Nineteenth-century liberals in various countries had used the novel to argue against slavery, serfdom, and the oppression of coolies, and throughout the twentieth century, the Soviets turned it into a staple propaganda text in their critique of Western imperialism. What may be read, on one level, as comparative history can be read, on another, as connected history. As Heike Paul demonstrates, F. These novelists simply filled in details from their own cultures, freely imitating for sentimental effect.

In the twentieth century, the ideological malleability of the novel was further encouraged by its new status as juvenile literature. As our authors show, translators in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries did not feel bound to the English original as guarantee for the truthfulness and quality of their translations. This attitude was even more pronounced in editions for young readers.

In Bulgaria, several partial or abbreviated translations for adults were made from English in the second half of the nineteenth century. Nonetheless, the first adaptation for children, published in , drew on French, Swedish, and Russian editions for young readers. In these editions, the political and philosophical discussions of slavery that characters hold throughout the novel are abbreviated or entirely removed.

The same holds true for historical audiences in Southeast Asia or Brazil who did not have access to the printed books and learned the story through silent film or performance. While the Western sentimental novel encouraged the transcendence of racial, class, and ethnic differences for the good of all humanity, it also attempted to impose Western moral and aesthetic standards among readers and spectators from non-Western communities.

The interest in that book raised many a sufferer who, while he had not a grumble to bestow upon his own misfortunes, had many a thought of sorrow and just indignation for those which you brought before him. Had they thought too carefully of both their allies and foes, the history of the Crimean War might be told very differently than it is. Likewise, in the Soviet Bloc and postrevolutionary Iran, interpretations of the novel have latched onto the possibility of revolution spoken by St.

Substituting St. Drescher also reminds readers of the systematic and prolonged sexual slavery of Korean, Taiwanese, Chinese, Filipina, Indonesian, and Malay women in the name of imperial Japan. Forced labor was imposed by Italian, Belgian, Portuguese, and French colonial regimes throughout Africa during wartime. No ethnicity or faith is immune or wholly innocent in these violations.

The contributors to this volume undertook its work because of our belief in the value of telling established stories differently, from subaltern as well as dominant points of view, highlighting both local complexities and global trends. The specifics of the emancipation and abolition causes especially the foreshadowing of the U. The association of minstrelsy and blackface performance as a representation of the book on stage interleaves with this tradition that, at least in the United States, was racist and hateful.

In telling some of this reception history as transnational rather than multicultural, we acknowledge not only the value of celebrating the enrichment that a cultural work receives when it lands in a community different from the original target audience but also the value of strategic impoverishment. Like other performance and film scholars who have adopted a transnational approach, we are particularly interested in how the politics of medium intersects with larger political and social concerns;64 in fact, in telling the story of a single work across diverse media and geographies, we confirm their insight of how crucial the history of media is to geopolitical developments.

As Debra J. They find parallels between their struggles and the fictional George, Cassy, Chloe, and Emmeline, and the play ends with the manumitted slaves opting to stay on the plantation as waged workers, to the refrains of hymns and pop music. Within the United States, few would stomach such pairings in this day and age; however, Uncle Tom is very much on the minds of Germans, whether or not they are constrained by political correctness.

Notes 1. Richmond Daily Dispatch, 25 August Charleston Mercury, 25 May Boston Liberator, 2 July Is Stowe racist? Jewett, Lawrence Venuti London: Routledge, , David C.

See William B. Catherine M. Rice and Martin Crawford, eds. Stowe, Key. David S. Norton, , Winifried Fluck, Donald E. Donald E. Cohen and Dever, introduction, Vanni, , Natal Witness, 8 April , 4. The strong interest of performance and film scholars in transnationalism is evidenced by recent special issues on performance, film, and transnationalism in three major journals: Theatre Research International Davis Oh! Rarely a matter of sustained investigation in Stowe criticism, Canada is nevertheless synonymous with one end of the polarity of freedom and ultimate peril, with the Mississippi watershed at the austral extremity.

Lawrence watershed from the American republic. The proximal relation of Canada to the United States underscores more than a juridical difference in the master-slave relationship, the domination achieved through forced labor, or the tyranny of violence that maintained racialized power in the middle and Southern states extending even to the North via the Fugitive Slave Act.

Her characters oriented toward Canada, found freedom there, yet did not put down roots or become part of the continental abolitionist community. Not surprisingly, Canada figures in slave narratives, pro-emancipation verses, and abolitionist fiction. The following lines from an broadside are indicative: I heard that Queen Victoria said If we would all forsake Our native land of slavery, And come across the lake, That she was standing on the shore With arms extended wide, To give us all a peaceful home, Beyond the rolling tide.

I will stand it no longer. What others have done, I will do. These trusty legs, or these sinewy arms shall place me among the free. Tom escaped; so can I. The North Star will not be less kind to me than to him. I will follow it. Stowe was sensitive to the contrast. Like the Star of Bethlehem, it announced where my salvation lay.

Courtesy of the Newberry Library. Map of Canada West by counties. Courtesy of Northwestern University Library. His first master, Mr.

While being transported south, he resolved to kill and rob the men conveying him. He became not only a Moses, a prophet leading his fellow slaves out of Egypt, but also a Paul, an apostle who preaches the message to communities in Canada and beyond.

In Tom, this produces a tragic yet pious outcome. Whereas Canaan is a mythohistorical locus for the suffering faithful, the route to Canada is cosmically navigable for the Harris family, with the help of compassionate men and women.

Failing that assistance, a fugitive could feel the side of trees where moss was longest and could orient by touch, even on a cloudy night. George Harris rejects the nation of his birth, the nation that takes him from suitable work and, more important, empowers a slave master to make George cohabit with a woman who is not his wife. Tom surrenders himself to go south on a riverboat, but George and his wife, Eliza, strike out separately toward Canada. Having no idea how far off Canada may be, she is determined to follow the North Star and get there with her young son 91, The riverbank on the left, beyond the islands, is Michigan; the riverbank on the right is Amherstburg and the British garrison of Fort Malden.

This is where the fictive Harris family took their first steps in freedom. Reproduced with the permission of the National Gallery of Canada.

As a result of Somerset v. Stewart , British soil was synonymous with emancipation, insofar as the rights of seizure and removal by anyone claiming ownership of a human being were nullified within Britain. Rather, it stands as a challenge to better provide for the black migrants crossing international borders. The broadsheet Voice of the Fugitive, published at Sandwich and edited by Henry Bibb a fugitive slave well known for his autobiography , helped spread the word about black settlers in Canada West, authenticate legitimate fundraising efforts, and unite the transnational abolitionist communities for two years, from January through December Power crossed the river at Detroit with a cargo of donated pork, flour, cornmeal, and bedding to distribute to black refugees in need.

He first stopped at the barracks near Windsor, where sixteen or eighteen families sheltered. Most of them were in want of food and clothing; some were sick, and others could not get employment.

We rendered what assistance we could to those that appeared to be most in want, and then left these abused people with the blight of slavery still visible on their countenances, and proceeded on our way to Sandwich.

There we found some families in the most deplorable state of destitution that I ever saw. Here I thought I saw the withering blight of slavery in all its definity [sic]. Cross-dressed in disguises young Harry as niece to Mrs. Smyth, Eliza as a prosperous white youth, and George as her valet , they drive to the wharf at Sandusky, Ohio, in a hired coach, load their baggage on a boat, and travel on in comfort. In reality, the neediest fugitives sheltered in barns and warehouses rather than in homes and boardinghouses.

Winter arrivals were disadvantaged by the cold and the seasonal unemployment cycle. Shadd emphasizes the opportunities available to builders and other tradespeople, however, the most readily available employment was agrarian. Tobacco could also be grown there38 the most southerly and warmest part of the province had a climate more like Baltimore or Philadelphia than Chicago, Cleveland, or Boston ,39 so farm laborers from Kentucky and the Mid-Atlantic states could readily join the agricultural labor force.

This form of agrarian settler colonialism was officially encouraged for white as well as black immigrants. Hired hands strove to become tenant farmers, and tenants aspired to be freeholders. Bush Farm near Chatham, ca. African American settlers in this region gleaned their first crops from old-growth forests like these, but the labor of clearing stumps was considerable.

Reproduced with the permission of the National Archives of Canada. By winter , the town of Amherstburg had fifty-four resident black families persons, including boarders , with property owned by thirteen families in the town and two in the country. Male unskilled laborers could also be employed in the railway construction that approached the western portion of this region in Willes collected donations to purchase two hundred acres of forested land.

He sold ten-acre plots to black settlers and reserved land for a church and school. By , several families were resident and working to clear the land. At Raleigh, Rev.

The first settler there arrived at the end of , the school opened in , and much of the land was taken up by sixty families by the winter of ; in , a brickyard and sawmill were established. Kirkland, there was a church and meetinghouse, and land was being cleared.

The census, the first to record race, shows blacks most populous in Essex County 3,, including sizable settlements in Amherstburg, Anderdon, Colchester, East Sandwich, and Windsor , Kent County 4,, including populations at Camden, Gore, Chatham, Harwich, and Raleigh , and Lincoln County , the majority in St.

The City of Toronto had black residents;48 many were prosperous, owned their homes, and sent their children to separate or integrated schools; a few attended university, and the black community sustained several churches and a debating lyceum. Ben Blackburn, whom Drew encountered in Windsor, had recently arrived with a gang of seventeen others following a mile journey from Maysville, Kentucky. Robert Nelson, a slave from Boone County in Kentucky, came to Canada in despite fearful warnings about what he might encounter there.

John Hunter received some education in Maryland and ran away when he learned he was to be sold. Isaac Riley and her husband traveled about six hundred miles, from Perry County in Missouri to Windsor; they settled first in a Frenchspeaking district possibly Tecumseh or LaSalle , then in St. Catharines, and finally in Buxton, where their children attended school and studied Latin and Greek.

This seemed so to me, long before I came here; every day confirms me in the opinion. Our enemies see it, know it, deplore it, hate it. In the same letter, Ward disparages the other alternative held out for black Americans: emigration to Liberia. For its advocates, Liberia held the promise of a black republic, a reverse emigration project for the recolonization of Africa by black Americans. For a man like Patrick Snead, who left Georgia in and lived in Toronto by , learning about Liberia was eye-opening.

Snead was an accomplished cooper and plied this trade for a while in Savannah, where he was owned by a free black man. I then told him, that I hoped one day to be my own man, and if so, that I wished to go to Liberia. Samuel Joseph May, a Unitarian minister from Syracuse New York, who had renounced the colonization movement in the s, offered encouragement for social uplift.

The free people of color, as they are called in mockery, are regarded as below contempt. Thus rejecting African colonization without needing to name it,66 Thompson wound up his two-and-a-half-hour address by reminding his auditors in Toronto of their local and transnational responsibility. Their sighs come to you with every breeze from the South. Oh, haste to help them, that this glorious continent may be freed from its pollution and its curse.

Give the fugitive your aid. You have thus far done nobly. Continue to receive kindly and to cherish hospitably, on these shores, the refugees from the house of American bondage. Give the abolitionists your sympathy. The third speaker was Frederick Douglass, who first allied with Thompson in , as part of the Evangelical Alliance that objected to slaveholding by American Presbyterians.

Douglass was also expected to identify Canada as a haven for runaway slaves. Go there and be free; go to the British Lion, and be freed from the talons and the beak of the American Eagle!

On this point he spoke boldly. Douglass called for his audience to emulate Madison Washington, hero of the Creole revolt. Douglass had yet to write The Heroic Slave, but the story was frequently on his mind. It is based on the case of a coastal trader transporting slaves from Virginia for sale in New Orleans.

Boarded at Nassau by black soldiers, the Bahamians proclaimed that the ship came under British law and that, by broad interpretation of the Somerset decision, every slave aboard was free. The nineteen insurrectionists were cleared by the courts four months later and also became freemen.

While in Canada, Washington was powerless to help his family or challenge the institution of slavery; back in the grip of the oppressor, he could lead himself and others to liberty in the port of Nassau, New Providence Island.

In Canada, George eschews agrarian occupations and finds the necessary uplift to fulfill his natural capacity as a mechanic, yet this does not suffice. In Paris, he becomes a scholar; in Liberia, he expects to become a leader. Thus, Canada is a staging post for becoming free, and Liberia, the new republic recolonized by blacks, is a platform for global advocacy.

Without evident judgment, though at the risk of alienating Garrisonians and other prominent abolitionist factions, Stowe invites readers to imagine her characters in both locales. As a committee of Amherstburg blacks stated in , Resolved, That this convention in behalf of the American slaves, tender its thanks to Mrs. Family ties sustain the kinds of daring return made by Jim for his mother in Ohio and by Madison Washington for his wife in Virginia.

As dependent as this reunion is on storytelling coincidence,79 the affective content ties together specific, meaningful locations: Canada West as embarkation point; francophone Montreal as disembarkation point; France where George completed his education and the West Indies where de Thoux married, was liberated, and inherited a fortune [] as pivots to opportunity; and Liberia as the location where George imagines taking a hitherto unknown form of political agency.

It seemed to us as if the author had spoiled her work and planted the stiletto of a murderous prejudice in the bosoms of those whom it had been her purpose to protect and befriend. Certainly, many abolitionists on both sides of the border sought to make settlement there a pragmatic option as long as slavery persisted in the United States.

Recapitulation of the stories of runaways, captured slaves, and immigrants kept the need for Canadian activism alive for readers of newspapers, as suggested by the demise of Voice of the Fugitive at the end of and the commencement of the Provincial Freeman in March Yet the performative interconnections of stage minstrelsy and Tom shows were at variance with the largely pro-abolitionist readings of the novel. Notes Special thanks go to Ivy Wilson for astute advice and to Elynne Whaley for research assistance.

Matlack New York: Henry Bibb, , Thomas Moore Paris: A. Galignan, , Stage adaptations are another matter. Henson , Henson made many journeys back to the United States, to conduct business on behalf of the British American Institute and Dawn Mills sawmill and to participate in fundraising, especially in Boston.

He also made three journeys to Britain, preaching in dozens of localities in England and Scotland. Alexander M. Ross corroborated the likelihood that slaves from Virginia and the border slave states were unlikely to know that reaching Canada could be feasible.

He toured the South under the pretext of collecting ornithological specimens and found ways to inform slaves about Canada. See Wilbur H. Thomas Davis London: Henry G. Bohn, , William R. Marsh, , Irish immigration swelled the numbers arriving in the Canadas from Great Britain and Ireland from 31, persons in to , in the peak year of For slaves escaping through Kentucky, the Ohio River demarcated the state lines, with Indiana and Ohio to the north; tributaries led to Columbus and Oberlin.

Lake Erie is part of a separate watershed. Pattison, ; reprint, Peterborough: Broadview, , Power, letter to the editor, Voice of the Fugitive, 12 February , 1. Disguise was not unusual for escapees. See Siebert, Shadd, In Upper Canada, tobacco was first cultivated in by former slaves from Virginia and Kentucky Silverman,

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