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Before you start creating a brand new resume to apply for a federal government position, you need to choose the way to build it. The former has a number of advantages over the latter. It will make searching and evaluating your resume easier for federal human resources specialists.

Second, the resume builder allows you to duplicate your resume, which is very helpful when you need to upgrade the document or tailor it to a specific position. Offering you to use its federal resume builder, USAJOBS provide you with a professional resume writing instrument, which is worth trying out. For your resume to be searchable and efficient, take your time to learn the subtleties of the federal resume builder USAJOBS has created.

We have come up with the top 4 tips that will help you avoid the common mistakes that often prevent the candidates from being recognized as qualified for the job. Read the announcement carefully! Before appl ying for a position, go to the Qualifications section in the vacancy announcement and preview the vacancy announcement questions. And more detailed Qualifications list for a Strategic Marketing Analyst position :.

As we can see, Qualifications requirements may vary depending on GS position, education, expert level skills or other specific knowledge relevant to a job announcement. So make sure to select a corresponding answer to each question prior to appl ying for a job posting. This is indeed a tedious task but it is totally worth the effort. Although having similar titles, the different job announcement will be using different keywords to describe their requirements for the candidate.

Keep your resume brief, describe your work experience and education relevant to the position you apply for. The advantage of the resume builder is that you get a consistent federal cv, which can be found by a recruiter using a keyword search. Building a resume that is perfectly in tune with the specific announcement will help your application score more points in the competition.

It is true that a resume should normally be kept brief but with the federal government resumes, it is all about the perfect balance between being concise and being informative. This shows how literally complete your resume is. Proofread Believe it or not but such an obvious step in the resume writing process is often neglected by the applicants. Typographical errors, not to speak of grammatical and spelling mistakes, will seriously impair the impressions of the federal HR specialist even about a seemingly perfect resume.

This will train you to be more critical and attentive when you start building your own federal resume. We provide all the necessary basic technicalities of the resume building process.

If you have a vague idea about what to write in each section, we highly recommend examining at least one USAJOBS resume builder example to see how a well-built final document should look like. Still unsure about how to make federal resume?

Your email address will not be published. Searching for Jobs 1. Do Not Leave Blank Fields. Share this Post. Daniella Henderson Daniella knows all ins and outs of the federal hiring process. She is excellent at job hunting strategies, starting from federal resume writing to the final stage of interview conduction.

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Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) (PDFDrive) | PDF | Intelligence Analysis | National Security – Javascript Required!

 
They integrate data into a coherent whole, put the evaluated information in context, and produce finished intelligence that includes assessments of events and judgments about the implications of the information for the United States.

 
 

How to use resume builder on usajobs searchtempest craigslist. Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) (PDFDrive)

 
 

Human intelligence collectors work on the ground, interacting with civilians, refugees, prisoners of war, even friendly forces to gain more information about enemy troops. All of these intelligence sources come together to paint a picture of the battlefield that commanders can use to find and destroy enemy forces.

Misconceptions When people think about intelligence operations, they often have visions of spies like James Bond in their heads. In truth, most intelligence information is captured from electronic communications, photos, or even open sources such as newspapers and television shows.

Human intelligence collectors often work face to face to glean information from people, but they don’t have jet packs or other spy gadgets. They simply know how to listen to people. Potential As new methods of communication are developed, military intelligence professional will find new ways to exploit them to gain information about enemy strength and plans.

Until a century ago, military intelligence operations were not well appreciated or well utilized. There is little danger of that situation returning in the future. Data is the raw print, broadcast, oral debriefing, or other form of information from a primary source. It can be a photograph, a tape recording, a commercial satellite image, or a personal letter from an individual.

A god example is a reporter embedded with forces in Afghanistan or Iraq. This is considered raw data until it goes through a conversion process to create a coherent product. OSI is comprised of the raw data that can be put together, generally by an editorial process that provides some filtering and validation as well as presentation management.

OSI is generic information that is usually widely disseminated. Newspapers, books, broadcasts, and general daily reports are part of the OSI world. An example is a reporter embedded with forces who takes the raw data and converts it into a meaningful article that is printed in newspapers, magazines or broadcasted over the air waves.

In the case of a battlefield commander, it would more than likely be answering the priority intelligence requirements PIR or specific orders or requests SOR. OSINT, in other words, applies the proven process of intelligence to the broad diversity of open sources of information, and creates intelligence. Example: The meaningful article above OSI that was created from raw data is used to support an operation. The photo in the article identifies the location and now can be used to support a tailored operation to attack the insurgents.

It can only be produced by an all-source intelligence professional, with access to classified intelligence sources, whether working for a nation or for a coalition staff. It can also come from an assured open source to which no question can be raised concerning its validity live video of an aircraft arriving at an airport that is broadcast over the media. Example: CNN reporter takes photos and reports on a bridge. Intelligence personnel are aware the bridge is vital for the movement of insurgent supplies; however, CNN is unaware of that.

Classified information confirms that such a bridge exists. This in effect validates the reporting as OSINT-V, especially if the bridge is identified to be destroyed to keep insurgents from moving supplies. People in the intelligence business are realists and know that everything cannot be monitored simultaneously; construction of new infrastructure is continuously taking place around the world.

We cannot keep track of all new buildings, bridges, roads or airfields being built. This is what makes open source reporting extremely valuable. The simple answer is the analyst does not have OSINT until the open source information has been processed and analyzed, and supports a specific requirement. The specific requirement can be a tailored operation or simply answering a question. In general, it is information that is available to the general public without restrictions unless it is copyrighted material.

These include newspapers, the internet, books, phone books, scientific journals, radio broadcasts, television, individuals, and other forms. In the Intelligence Community, the term “open” refers to overt, publicly available sources as opposed to covert or classified sources ; it is not related to open-source software. OSINT is distinguished from straight research in that it applies the process of intelligence to create tailored knowledge supportive of a specific decision by a specific individual or group.

Recent geopolitical events in Ukraine and the Middle East have highlighted the growing volatility of the world today. The emergence of states like Brazil, China and Russia underline how the world is moving to a more competitive. This structural shift in power distribution away from a consolidation of power in the West has been coined as the move from a unipolar to a multipolar world. From another dimension, though, threats to governments and private sector organizations are increasingly fragmenting away from states and the traditional contours of sovereignty, and into the realm of entrepreneurial terrorist organizations.

Both of these shifts have implications for intelligence gathering in both the private and public sector. Set against this changing threat landscape is the opportunity presented by new technology to gain more predictive intelligence about emerging threats to geopolitical stability. The recent tendency for regional conflagrations to spring up and surprise organizations raise the question of how much of these events are now predictable with the advent of Big Data.

Traditionally, risk identification and analysis has been mostly qualitative, performed by expert analysts covering a particular region who collate information themselves and then interpret and disseminate their findings.

This is often a three-part intelligence process encompassing data collection, analysis and dissemination. The hypothesis was that because independent datasets were heavily siloed, it was hard to see connections between different types of data, research themes and regions.

The failure to co-mingle different types of data meant that connections remained latent, rather than visible, ultimately resulting in negative surprises. To address this issue, data fusion technology investments were inaugurated which involved putting in place technologies that could sit on top of various data stores and draw connections between events and entities through link and network analysis to, for example, identify possible terrorist cells from transactional data.

By assembling the analytic architecture to support an iterative intelligence cycle, the idea was that more connections and patterns could now be seen from the data and more insight therefore derived. However, while the investment in flexible analytic technology resulted in more visibility in the connections between data points, it did not address growing informational deficiency — specifically, surfacing hard to find low visibility information to show what was happening now and what might happen in the future.

Thus, as more and more devices and platforms pump out situational information on a second by second basis, this information remains largely untapped to the detriment of the intelligence gathering process.

At a macro level, the decline of newspapers and the emergence of peer-to-peer information sharing platforms has fundamentally reconfigured where intelligence is situated and traditional conduits of knowledge are exchanged.

Now, information moves at a lightning fast pace, with social media platforms out-sprinting publishing organizations in the production and dissemination of reports. The result is that the open web has become a reservoir of insight and a fossil layer for all content ever generated. We now require new ways to surface and explore this data at scale. Until now, collecting this type of data was an extremely difficult and time consuming process, involving the manual aggregation of hundreds of new articles everyday by human event handlers and analysts to spot new developments.

The joint proliferation and fragmentation of textual content has meant there is both more information to wade through and a greater variation of content. All this means analysts need to spend longer time on data collection, giving them less time for analysis, interpretation and their point of view. A recent example demonstrated this problem: a predictive tweet posted by an Islamic State of Iraq and Syria ISIS activist not picked up by anyone which may have given a public warning that ISIS sympathizers were preparing an attack on the border with Yemen.

A few hashtags began circulating in early June relating to Saudi security efforts targeting Al Qaeda in the region of Sharurah. They will commit a suicide attack in the police investigation building with the help of God. The first is to identify the relevant items of information and collecting the data to remove it from its original source.

The second part is presenting data in the way which allows analytical investigations to yield insightful results on an ongoing, dynamic basis. This is about providing data that can be queried in a way that is malleable, reusable and extensible. In terms of the first challenge, while it can be costly to collect and store data, new advancements in data storage and relational databases mean this is now less of an issue.

Indeed, recent allegations by Edward Snowden suggest that bringing in targeted data streams at scale has already been undertaken by governments with relative ease. The significantly more challenging and valuable problem is extracting vital fields of information from unstructured text that can yield insight — in effect, removing the noise and secondary data and preserving only the vital parts such as location, threat classification, date and actors.

Essentially, this means transforming unstructured textual data into coherent data formats which can be organized and queried in multiple dimensions. The clear advantage of this type of data is its reusability: traditional qualitative analysis can be used once to answer a single question, whereas big data can be switched around multiple times to answer different types of questions iteratively — show me all terrorist attacks in Algeria; show me whether this is more or less than the regional norm; now show me attacks using improvised explosive devices in Algeria, etc.

A new algorithmic technique that can solve this issue is event extraction using natural language processing. This involves algorithms discovering particular items of information from unstructured text. This could include certain risk events protests, insurgency, strikes, bomb attacks combined with locational and temporal context.

Context can be provided by different types of extraction: geo-extraction identifying locations from unstructured text , time extraction identifying time from unstructured text , event extraction identifying different types of events from unstructured text , and actor extraction identifying different types of events from unstructured text. Natural language processing works by identifying specific words often verbs in unstructured text that conform to a classification scheme.

With statistical machine translation, these verbs can be identified in languages ranging from Arabic to Mandarin, giving a global coverage of civil disorder events. The clear advantage of this approach is a real-time way to discover threat events hidden within the open web that are relevant to particular intelligence products and correspond to pre-defined parameters.

The monitoring is performed by algorithms, allowing analysts to focus on the analysis side of the equation — saving them time and allowing them to deploy their resources toward more high value pursuits.

Augmenting the analytic capability of analysts by delivering real-time data in a quantifiable and organized environment is the objective. This gives organizations early warning about low visibility threats, affording them time to conceive proactive mitigation strategies. Furthermore, given the verbosity and denseness of text, it is also extremely difficult for human analysts to wade through text and link events to times and dates and locations and actors.

Performed at scale, this is best achieved using algorithms which can, for instance, identify all the possible dates which relate to a specific event in an article, and then choose the most likely one based on a set of predefined rules constructed algorithmically and refined using machine learning — a technique by which algorithms can learn and improve based on past performance. Disaggregating events into different buckets location, time, types, actor enables precise and surgical queries to be run — for example, recent incidents of protest in northern Algeria in a short period of time.

As this data is in a quantitative format, it can also be exported to various visualization tools such as Tableau, CartoDb and Tipco to show. A recent case study we performed with clients at Cytora looked at the spatial spread of Boko Haram activity from By running advanced queries, we were able to limit the data to just events that related to Boko Haram in Nigeria and classify event data into different types, such as attacks against civilians and attacks against the military.

Outside of the time saved and re-deployed elsewhere, event extraction built on natural language processing can bring to the surface events which are hard to find, latent or in irregular news sources which only periodically contain new information. Quite simply, a human analyst can only cover a certain number of sources and it makes sense to cover regular reporting outlets where the informational frequency and replenishment is high. This forms a bias against longer tail online sources such as Facebook accounts used by the Mali Police Force, or websites reporting on troop deployment in Russia which may be less frequent, but provide low visibility and potentially high impact events.

Once these discrete events are extracted and organized, it is possible to find valuable insight such as the number of bomb attacks in northern Algeria has increased 30 percent in the last month or the number of protests in Burma involving farmers in the last 3 months increased by 50 percent.

The value of this type of quantitative analysis is clear in terms of spotting surges of instability in countries and identifying unusual changes in activity that diverge from historical norms. For instance, our analytics platform picked up a surge in ISIS activity in Syria and Iraq weeks before mainstream media became aware of it, or, indeed, even knew that ISIS was a threat. Open source data provides, at least theoretically, a record of recent history — what has happened across a period of time and how change has occurred.

It forms a bedrock of understanding why events have happened, informing us of the critical drivers and mechanisms which have brought it into being. Piping this open source intelligence into the right algorithmic environment in real-time can yield insight that would require hundreds of analysts to emulate in terms of physical data collection. In light of the speed, scale and flux of online information, it makes sense for both private organizations and governments to use this type of technology to augment the capabilities of their analysts.

Richard Hartley is co-founder and head of products at Cytora, where he works on product strategy and design, and closely collaborates with customers to define requirements and usability. He previously worked in product management at eBaoTech, a Chinese software company based in Shanghai.

Richard has spoken at various conferences about the applications of new technology to risk methodologies. Open source intelligence is a process of information gathering from public and overt sources, such as newspapers and military trade journals, that produces “actionable intelligence.

Gather sources. The number of possible open source intelligence outlets is limitless. Some basic ones are newspapers, which report on things like troop and fleet movement, and even civilians who visit other countries and can make relevant observations upon return.

Strategy and defense information websites, such as Jane’s Group, also provide high quality information for you to harvest. Pick a region or topic. Monitoring all varieties of open source intelligence across regional and topical interests takes huge amounts of manpower.

To effectively use open source intelligence you should focus on one region or issue at a time. This will help you to stay on top of the latest information and will allow you to develop a background understanding of intelligence items.

Connect the dots. Once you have gathered your sources you need to monitor news and information in order to connect the dots. Look, for example, at how heads of state visits coincide with arms sales.

Then consider troop and fleet movement against rising tensions in various regions. Use widely available technology such as Google Earth, Bing Maps 3D, and others to get views of important locations. Take all this kind of information and try to deduce the most likely intelligence information from it. Test your theories.

One of the best ways to test a theory that you’ve constructed on the basis of open source intelligence is to publish the theory. You can post theories on strategy discussion forums or you can send your piece to influential military bloggers or even newspapers. Check the responses from other members of the open source intelligence community to see what the criticisms might be. It’s a satellite image showing tribesmen gathering in a remote area where none should be — the photograph so clear you can see the caliber of ammunition they are carrying.

It’s a snatched bit of conversation between two terrorist leaders, overheard by a trusted source the terrorists don’t realize is listening. Each of these sources and a multitude of others can become the tips that put an entire nation on alert, as a single tip has done from a single source just before the 10th anniversary of the Sept. A: Simply put, it is information from anywhere that the U.

It can be as basic as a diplomat reading a local newspaper and passing on something interesting to a superior in an embassy or Washington. But it gets much more sophisticated and aggressive than that. In counterterrorism, bits and pieces of information form a messy picture like an impressionist painting.

Those collecting the signs and signals look for a pattern, eventually an image, that gives them a target to go after or tells them which target to protect. A: Perhaps the spookiest is measurement intelligence, known as “MASINT,” using far-away technology to get extremely up close and personal. The U. There are even efforts to understand what a “guilty” heartbeat pattern might be. Masint, working in combination with other kinds of intelligence-gathering, was one of the clinchers in the raid that killed Osama bin Laden.

Then there is human intelligence, or “humint,” which has been around since the dawn of spycraft and is still vital. That’s the tipster you cultivate and pay, or perhaps the unproven one who simply walks into a U. Cybertracking is a newer tool, pursuing terrorists who use computers either to attack a computer network or, more often, to organize how their own human network would launch a physical attack.

A: Each of those streams of data is captured by a multibillion-dollar worldwide network of U. Sometimes these streams are collected by U. True to its name, the Central Intelligence Agency is an “all-source” organization using all means. A: Sometimes they don’t. After a Nigerian allegedly tried to bring down a Detroit-bound airliner on Christmas Day almost two years ago, it emerged that his father had warned U.

But in the bin Laden raid, a human source led to the compound in the Pakistani army town of Abbottabad. Signals intelligence monitored for phone calls emanating from there, and found none, because bin Laden forbade them, hoping to evade detection by just such technical means.

Masint was derived from the imagery taken by drones and satellites. All of this helped to convince CIA analysts they had found their man and persuade President Barack Obama to approve a dangerous and diplomatically risky raid into Pakistani sovereign territory.

A: The ever-present risk is that they won’t be. Word of a potential plot to fly planes into U. Another agency had word terrorists might be attending flight school. Each organization kept to itself the dots of information that, when connected, could have revealed the larger pattern of a massive terrorist plot. Before raw data and human tips can be called “intelligence,” they must be analyzed, and if possible, corroborated. There are thousands more across the 16 intelligence agencies, sifting raw data, and cross-comparing within their own agencies, and with others, to spot a pattern.

Q: What does it mean to receive — and warn the public about — a credible and specific but unconfirmed threat, as in the latest case? A: A credible threat means it was heard from a trusted source, not just anyone.

Specific means the U. When a threat is specific and credible but unconfirmed, that means intelligence officials haven’t been able to validate the information even though they trust the source who gave it to them. A: Right now, teams of analysts are combing through information gleaned from one trusted source, who heard that a small group of attackers, perhaps from Pakistan, might blow up a car bomb in New York or Washington.

One or all of the attackers might be from Pakistan. Newly minted al-Qaida leader Ayman al-Zawahri might be behind it. These analysts are looking for anything to corroborate that report in the reams of information they’ve gathered tracking travelers to the U. He said he would be directing analysts to pore over everything that can be gleaned from flight and passport logs of potential foreign suspects who have traveled to the U.

The CIA operates under the U. Title 50 operations are covert, meaning the U. Other intelligence agencies, such as the eavesdropping National Security Agency and the new Cyber Command, routinely operate under Title 50 as well. A: It can feel that way. There is a favorite expression among intelligence officials, memorably if confusingly uttered by former Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld, that captures the essence of their work:.

We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns — the ones we don’t know we don’t know. How someone who has never had legitimate access to a network can learn more about that organization than most of its own employees? I have given this as a hands-on presentation at conferences and workshops in the past. In those workshops, my audience is usually made up of IT admins, company legal departments, and a handful of individuals from across the law enforcement community.

In the weeks leading up to each workshop I always request a list of attendees from the conference sponsor, which I use to gather OSINT on the attendees. On the day of the workshop, before everyone arrives, I go around and put nametags at their seats along with a notecard that is specific for each person. On that notecard is a complete bio and profile comprised of information that I was able to get using various publically available resources.

Open-source intelligence refers to finding and analyzing information from any source that is publically available. OSINT has been used for decades by the intelligence community. Only in the last 10 to 12 years has there been a methodology change.

As companies evolved and technology advanced so did the competition to be the best in the market. What followed was a variety of companies that started conducting competitive intelligence against one another — or cyberespionage as its known today.

We now know that certain nation-states have entire teams devoted to conducting reconnaissance using the Internet to acquire as much intel on U. To put it bluntly, China and Russia figured out long before we did that OSINT was a key to the success of their subsequent hacking operations that have become commonplace over the last decade.

The Eye-opener During my presentation last week, I was fortunate enough to have a few C-level executives in the audience. This is always great because I get to show them first hand how easily they can become a target of a phishing email or another social-engineering attack.

I started off my presentation with infrastructural reconnaissance, which focuses on gathering information on an organization such as email addresses, DNS records, IP addresses, MX servers, files, and anything else that would be useful to an attacker. Infrastructural recon differs from personal reconnaissance in that personal recon is exactly what it sounds like: gathering info on a person or individual.

The two types of recon are all part of the overall objective anyway, especially if you plan to use a social-engineering attack. Before my presentation, I received permission from the executives to use them and the company as the target for my demo. The demo was split into two parts: Part 1 illustrating how much material on them and the company I could uncover using only their domain name. Part 2 was me using the results from Part 1 to obtain additional info that could be used in any number of subsequent attacks.

Part 1 I used Maltego to search for the domain. Coupled with its graphing libraries, Maltego, allows you to identify key relationships between information and identify previously unknown relationships between them. The email address I chose just happened to belong to an exec sitting in the front row. Now that I had his email address, as well as the naming convention used for their email e. I next logged into LinkedIn using an unassuming account I already created specifically for this type of work and searched for the company.

As expected, the LinkedIn search returned a list of people identifying themselves as employees of this company. In that list was a familiar name, it was the same executive and now I had his full name, title, complete description of his position, and a list of his coworkers and information about their positions.

Since I only had an hour, I stopped Part 1 and explained how the rest of the process might play out in a real-world malicious scenario with an attacker using this information for a phishing email.

Part 2 The second part of the demo consisted of me taking a lot of the data I obtained in Part 1 IP address, domain names, etc. I think this part of my demo was even more eye-opening because it showed the audience that several of their assets were exposed.

Within three minutes I managed to obtain a comprehensive listing of their systems complete with IP net blocks, DNS servers, exchanges server, webmail, Microsoft Lync server, customer-facing portals, and a lot more.

The End I barely scratched the surface in this OSINT presentation, but in less than 20 minutes I was able to gather enough information for a mass spear-phishing attack or network intrusion.

Along the way I also uncovered information that, although not applicable to this particular objective, could have been useful had I decided to use another attack vector as a way in.

Like many things, these tools and techniques can be used for good or evil. However, as security professionals we can leverage the same TTPs as the bad guys to identify weaknesses before someone exploits them. Having information on the attacker, such as an IP address, C2 servers, moniker, etc. Tactical and Strategic Intelligence Tactical Intelligence – Intelligence that is required for the planning and conduct of tactical operations.

He is operating in the here-and-now-in-your-face cultural environment. There is no room for error! Strategic Intelligence – Intelligence that is required for forming policy and military plans at national and international levels. This is in line with more of an expanded timeframe and takes into consideration entire countries. The intelligence analysis may run months or years into the future. During this period, errors, which are not acceptable but do still occur, are not as critical as they are at the tactical level where life and death are daily concerns.

Errors at this level can be corrected with the luxury of more room for maneuver. Components of Strategic Intelligence The same analytical process that takes place at the strategic level can be applied at the tactical level. The tactical commander is faced with the same issues albeit at a smaller scale. Strategic intelligence and tactical intelligence differ primarily in level of application but may also vary in terms and scope of detail.

Information gathered as strategic intelligence may be categorized into eight components. Each of these components can further be divided into a number of subcomponents. These components and subcomponents are not all-encompassing nor mutually exclusive. This approach is merely a means to enhance familiarization with the types of information included in strategic intelligence.

Biographic Intelligence: The study of individuals of actual or potential importance, their background and personalities. Economic Intelligence: The science of production, distribution, and use of wealth– the material means of satisfying human desires. Sociological Intelligence: The study of society, as well as the groups within society, their composition, organization, purposes and habits, and the role of the individual in relation to social institutions.

Transportation Intelligence: Concerned with the operation and facilities of transportation systems in foreign countries. Telecommunications Intelligence: Concerned with the operation and facilities of civil and fixed military communications systems in foreign countries.

Military Geography: Geography is the science of the description of the land, sea and air, and the distribution of plant and animal life, including man and his industries. Military geographical intelligence is the military evaluation of all geographical factors which may in any way influence military operations. Armed Forces Intelligence: Is the integrated study of the organized land, sea, and air forces, both actual and potential, of foreign nations.

Strategy: Strategic military problems of the nation in light of position, terrain, economic, political, and other factors. Tactics: Employment of weapons, employment and operations of the various arms and services, special operations training.

Political Intelligence: Political intelligence is intelligence concerning foreign and domestic policies of governments and the activities of political movements. Scientific And Technical Intelligence: Is the study and evaluation of a foreign countries scientific and technical capability and potential to supports its objective through the development of new weapons and new equipment. The first step is the identification of intelligence gaps. Analysts translate these gaps into intelligence requirements – the second step.

In the third step, the strategic debriefer fulfills those requirements. The fourth step involves preparation of an intelligence report. The fifth and last step is the preparation of an intelligence report evaluation by the originator of the requirement. These evaluations measure the quality of the information as well as the quality of the report writing. The Intelligence Cycle is the process of developing raw information into finished intelligence for policymakers to use in decisionmaking and action.

There are five steps which constitute the Intelligence Cycle. Planning and Direction It is the beginning and the end of the cycle—the beginning because it involves drawing up specific collection requirements and the end because finished intelligence, which supports policy decisions, generates new requirements.

The whole process depends on guidance from public officials. Policymakers—the President, his aides, the National Security Council, and other major departments and agencies of government—initiate requests for intelligence. There are many sources of information, including open sources such as foreign broadcasts, newspapers, periodicals, and books. Open source reporting is integral to CIA’s analytical capabilities. There are also secret sources of information.

CIA operations officers collect such information from agents abroad and from defectors who provide information obtainable in no other way. Finally, technical collection—electronics and satellite photography—plays an indispensable role in modern intelligence, such as monitoring arms control agreements and providing direct support to military forces. This is done through a variety of methods including decryption, language translations, and data reduction. All-Source Analysis and Production It includes integrating, evaluating, and analyzing all available data—which is often fragmented and even contradictory—and preparing intelligence products.

Analysts, who are subject-matter specialists, consider the information’s reliability, validity, and relevance. They integrate data into a coherent whole, put the evaluated information in context, and produce finished intelligence that includes assessments of events and judgments about the implications of the information for the United States. The CIA devotes the bulk of its resources to providing strategic intelligence to policymakers.

It performs this important function by monitoring events, warning decisionmakers about threats to the United States, and forecasting developments.

The subjects involved may concern different regions, problems, or personalities in various contexts—political, geographic, economic, military, scientific, or biographic. Current events, capabilities, and future trends are examined.

The CIA produces numerous written reports, which may be brief—one page or less—or lengthy studies. They may involve current intelligence, which is of immediate importance, or long-range assessments. The Agency presents some finished intelligence in oral briefings. The CIA also participates in the drafting and production of National Intelligence Estimates, which reflect the collective judgments of the Intelligence Community.

Dissemination The last step, which logically feeds into the first, is the distribution of the finished intelligence to the consumers, the same policymakers whose needs initiated the intelligence requirements. Finished intelligence is provided daily to the President and key national security advisers. The policymakers, the recipients of finished intelligence, then make decisions based on the information, and these decisions may lead to the levying of more requirements, thus triggering the Intelligence Cycle.

NEO, Humanitarian, Peacekeeping, etc. Send directly to requesting office. Country Studies Can we share with the public?

Databases May divulge sensitive open Open Source Center source collection capabilities. Protect tradecraft. Intelligence Cycle Foreign Services. Can present data be sanitized?

Critical information is processed ahead of lesser priority information. Credibility and Reliability. Internet in numbers. How many emails were sent during ? How many domains are there? How many Internet users are there? Some of the numbers are snapshots taken during the year, others cover the entire period.

Either way, they all contribute to giving us a better understanding of Internet in Internet population that used a tablet or e-reader. What about the internet in ? In the last twenty years, internet access has increased across the globe causing a boom in the amount of data being produced and collected. Here are some facts about data on the internet. There are , Tweets every minute, Google processes over 2 million search queries every minute, 72 hours of new video are uploaded to YouTube every minute, More than million emails are sent every minute, Facebook processes GB of data every minute and new websites are created every minute.

These terms are usually used in the world of computing to describe disk space, or data storage space, and system memory. For instance, just a few years ago we were describing hard drive space using the term Megabytes. Today, Gigabytes is the most common term being used to describe the size of a hard drive.

In the not so distant future, Terabyte will be a common term. But what are they? This is where it gets quite confusing because there are at least three accepted definitions of each term. According to the IBM Dictionary of computing, when used to describe disk storage capacity, a megabyte is 1,, bytes in decimal notation. But when the term megabyte is used for real and virtual storage, and channel volume, 2 to the 20th power or 1,, bytes is the appropriate notation.

According to the Microsoft Press Computer Dictionary, a megabyte means either 1,, bytes or 1,, bytes. According to Eric S. Raymond in The New Hacker’s Dictionary, a megabyte is always 1,, bytes on the argument that bytes should naturally be computed in powers of two. So which definition do most people conform to? When referring to a megabyte for disk storage, the hard drive manufacturers use the standard that a megabyte is 1,, bytes. This means that when you buy an 80 Gigabyte Hard drive you will get a total of 80,,, bytes of available storage.

This is where it gets confusing because Windows uses the 1,, byte rule so when you look at the Windows drive properties an 80 Gigabyte drive will report a capacity of Anybody confused yet? With three accepted definitions, there will always be some confusion so I will try to simplify the definitions a little.

The can be replaced with and still be correct using the other acceptable standards. Both of these standards are correct depending on what type of storage you are referring. Bit: A Bit is the smallest unit of data that a computer uses. It can be used to represent two states of information, such as Yes or No. Byte: A Byte is equal to 8 Bits. A Byte can represent states of information, for example, numbers or a combination of numbers and letters.

Kilobyte: A Kilobyte is approximately 1, Bytes, actually 1, Bytes depending on which definition is used. Megabyte: A Megabyte is approximately 1, Kilobytes. In the early days of computing, a Megabyte was considered to be a large amount of data. These days with a Gigabyte hard drive on a computer being common, a Megabyte doesn’t seem like much anymore. Gigabyte: A Gigabyte is approximately 1, Megabytes. A Gigabyte is still a very common term used these days when referring to disk space or drive storage.

Terabyte: A Terabyte is approximately one trillion bytes, or 1, Gigabytes. There was a time that I never thought I would see a 1 Terabyte hard drive, now one and two terabyte drives are the normal specs for many new computers. To put it in some perspective, a Terabyte could hold about 3.

A Terabyte could hold 1, copies of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Ten Terabytes could hold the printed collection of the Library of Congress. That’s a lot of data. Petabyte: A Petabyte is approximately 1, Terabytes or one million Gigabytes.

It’s hard to visualize what a Petabyte could hold. It could hold billion pages of standard printed text. It would take about million floppy disks to store the same amount of data. Exabyte: An Exabyte is approximately 1, Petabytes. Another way to look at it is that an Exabyte is approximately one quintillion bytes or one billion Gigabytes.

There is not much to compare an Exabyte to. It has been said that 5 Exabytes would be equal to all of the words ever spoken by mankind. Zettabyte: A Zettabyte is approximately 1, Exabytes. There is nothing to compare a Zettabyte to but to say that it would take a whole lot of ones and zeroes to fill it up.

Yottabyte: A Yottabyte is approximately 1, Zettabytes. It would take approximately 11 trillion years to download a Yottabyte file from the Internet using high-power broadband. Brontobyte: A Brontobyte is you guessed it approximately 1, Yottabytes. The only thing there is to say about a Brontobyte is that it is a 1 followed by 27 zeroes!

Geopbyte: A Geopbyte is about Brontobytes! Not sure why this term was created. I’m doubting that anyone alive today will ever see a Geopbyte hard drive.

One way of looking at a geopbyte is bytes! Now you should have a good understanding of megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes and everything in between. Now if we can just figure out what a WhatsAByte is It simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence.

It can exist in any form, usable or not. It does not have meaning of itself. Collecting users activity log will produces data.

Internet users are generating petabytes of data every day. Millions of users access billions of web pages every millisecond, creating hundreds of server logs with every keystroke and mouse click. Having only user log data is not useful.

To give better service to user and generate money for business it is required to process raw data and collect information which can be used for providing knowledge to users and advertisers. Based on these figures, I opine that intelligence exists out there just waiting to be tapped. Lots of data but guess what, even Google which is considered currently the best search engine, has only indexed about terabytes.

Now you know why I recommend using more than one search engine with good keywords to assist. The th Military Intelligence Battalion is. IKN is a Knowledge Management tool and dynamic portal that enables Intelligence Soldiers all over the world to communicate, collaborate and investigate. IKN serves as the Intelligence Warfighter Forum and hosts discussion forums, a single point of entry to access Intelligence Community websites, and provides a variety of public and private web applications that support the Intelligence Community and the Warfighter.

Internet Detective a free online tutorial designed to help students develop the critical thinking required for their Internet research. The tutorial offers practical advice on evaluating the quality of websites and highlights the need for care when selecting online information sources. Unlike many other event databases, the GTD includes systematic data on international as well as domestic terrorist incidents that.

For each GTD incident, information is available on the date and location of the incident, the weapons used and nature of the target, the number of casualties, and — when identifiable — the identity of the perpetrator.

Globalis aims to create an understanding for similarities and differences in human societies, as well as how we influence life on the planet. This is primarily done using visual means. AfPak Daily Brief has terrific analysis from experts and publishes a daily brief of the latest news from the region. Pakistan Maps. I have included Pakistan because of their common border and the role being played out by the insurgents.

AllAfrica AllAfrica is a voice of, by and about Africa – aggregating, producing and distributing news and information items daily from over African news organizations and our own reporters to an African and global public. Aircraft and airports are very secure and getting inside poses a high degree of risk, however, shooting down an aircraft away from the terminal would make a statement that aviation still is not that safe.

Orders of battle, databases, aircraft overviews of Armed Forces all over the world are presented here. By David F. In contrast, social media Web sites today thrive on loose lips, making it even tougher to maintain operational security.

Even the smallest details shared on social media sites can play a role in security breaches. The new policy follows a seven-month review in which the Defense Department weighed the threats and benefits of allowing the wide use of emerging Internet capabilities.

It essentially seeks to manage the risks while acknowledging the Internet is proving a powerful tool for a myriad of tasks including recruiting, public relations, collaboration with a wide range of people and for communications between troops and their families.

To guard security, it allows commanders to cut off access — on a temporary basis only — if that’s required to safeguard a mission or reserve bandwidth for official use. The new directive also makes practices uniform across the entire department, in which different commands previously blocked certain things while others didn’t. Visiting sites for pornography, gambling or hate-crime activities is still prohibited on military computers.

Wennergren, deputy assistant secretary of defense for information technology. The new directive means that YouTube, MySpace and more than a dozen sites blocked by the Pentagon in May will be unblocked, he said.

The Pentagon said at the time that the use of video sites in particular was straining its network and using too much of its bandwidth. But Wennergren said Friday that the move failed to stem the use of bandwidth because people just went to alternate sites. BLOGS, like social sites, are good sources of information harvesting for intelligence purposes if you have the time and patience, especially the time. Good keyword searching will cut down on the time you spend on BLOGS if your only reason for being there is to harvest information.

It is very easy to get distracted though with all the videos that appear daily and you have to be focused on the task. I think that too much information is being passed around. A good analyst, foreign or domestic, can put together enough information from BLOGS to build a good intelligence file. However, I realize that people are not going to shut them down and too many folks out there want access to them. Personally, I think that too much information is being passed around. Be careful how you use them.

Once you post information to a Blog it is basically there forever. As of October there are , highway bridges in the United States. This includes all bridges of 20 foot or greater length that carry roadways open to the public. It does not include railroad bridges. Source: November issue of Better Roads. They have been reporting these numbers, broken down by state, annually since Each issue contains original academic and policy relevant research articles by authors from across the globe, and topical statistical data, graphics and opinion polls.

Continuity and Change. Policy Between Conflict and Rapprochement. Central Asia. Imagine being told you have to deploy to a certain country to conduct an operation. You are told the weather is 40 degrees with a heavy overcast and it is drizzling. You can only imagine an image of what it looks like. However, with a weather cam of the area the image is vivid and in real time.

Most major cities around the world have cams showing certain parts of the city which can be very helpful when planning an operation. They can show areas to avoid and roads that support your equipment.

Live Video Cam Mapping Most webcam maps provide updating still images of locations around the world. Ivideon cams however are actually live video feeds, many of them with sound.

You can therefore use the map to watch live video streams simply by selecting a marker on the map. Ivideon customers around the world are sharing their live streams on the map. However Ivideon seems to be particularly popular in countries in Eastern Europe. All about Chinese military capabilities. This is the blog of China defense, where professional analysts and serious defense enthusiasts share findings on a rising military power.

We provide complete files of geographic names information covering countries or geopolitical areas. Indeed, recent allegations by Edward Snowden suggest that bringing in targeted data streams at scale has already been undertaken by governments with relative ease.

The significantly more challenging and valuable problem is extracting vital fields of information from unstructured text that can yield insight — in effect, removing the noise and secondary data and preserving only the vital parts such as location, threat classification, date and actors. Essentially, this means transforming unstructured textual data into coherent data formats which can be organized and queried in multiple dimensions.

The clear advantage of this type of data is its reusability: traditional qualitative analysis can be used once to answer a single question, whereas big data can be switched around multiple times to answer different types of questions iteratively — show me all terrorist attacks in Algeria; show me whether this is more or less than the regional norm; now show me attacks using improvised explosive devices in Algeria, etc. A new algorithmic technique that can solve this issue is event extraction using natural language processing.

This involves algorithms discovering particular items of information from unstructured text. This could include certain risk events protests, insurgency, strikes, bomb attacks combined with locational and temporal context. Context can be provided by different types of extraction: geo-extraction identifying locations from unstructured text , time extraction identifying time from unstructured text , event extraction identifying different types of events from unstructured text , and actor extraction identifying different types of events from unstructured text.

Natural language processing works by identifying specific words often verbs in unstructured text that conform to a classification scheme. With statistical machine translation, these verbs can be identified in languages ranging from Arabic to Mandarin, giving a global coverage of civil disorder events.

The clear advantage of this approach is a real-time way to discover threat events hidden within the open web that are relevant to particular intelligence products and correspond to pre-defined parameters. The monitoring is performed by algorithms, allowing analysts to focus on the analysis side of the equation — saving them time and allowing them to deploy their resources toward more high value pursuits.

Augmenting the analytic capability of analysts by delivering real-time data in a quantifiable and organized environment is the objective. This gives organizations early warning about low visibility threats, affording them time to conceive proactive mitigation strategies. Furthermore, given the verbosity and denseness of text, it is also extremely difficult for human analysts to wade through text and link events to times and dates and locations and actors.

Performed at scale, this is best achieved using algorithms which can, for instance, identify all the possible dates which relate to a specific event in an article, and then choose the most likely one based on a set of predefined rules constructed algorithmically and refined using machine learning — a technique by which algorithms can learn and improve based on past performance. Disaggregating events into different buckets location, time, types, actor enables precise and surgical queries to be run — for example, recent incidents of protest in northern Algeria in a short period of time.

As this data is in a quantitative format, it can also be exported to various visualization tools such as Tableau, CartoDb and Tipco to show. A recent case study we performed with clients at Cytora looked at the spatial spread of Boko Haram activity from By running advanced queries, we were able to limit the data to just events that related to Boko Haram in Nigeria and classify event data into different types, such as attacks against civilians and attacks against the military.

Outside of the time saved and re-deployed elsewhere, event extraction built on natural language processing can bring to the surface events which are hard to find, latent or in irregular news sources which only periodically contain new information.

Quite simply, a human analyst can only cover a certain number of sources and it makes sense to cover regular reporting outlets where the informational frequency and replenishment is high. This forms a bias against longer tail online sources such as Facebook accounts used by the Mali Police Force, or websites reporting on troop deployment in Russia which may be less frequent, but provide low visibility and potentially high impact events.

Once these discrete events are extracted and organized, it is possible to find valuable insight such as the number of bomb attacks in northern Algeria has increased 30 percent in the last month or the number of protests in Burma involving farmers in the last 3 months increased by 50 percent.

The value of this type of quantitative analysis is clear in terms of spotting surges of instability in countries and identifying unusual changes in activity that diverge from historical norms. For instance, our analytics platform picked up a surge in ISIS activity in Syria and Iraq weeks before mainstream media became aware of it, or, indeed, even knew that ISIS was a threat. Open source data provides, at least theoretically, a record of recent history — what has happened across a period of time and how change has occurred.

It forms a bedrock of understanding why events have happened, informing us of the critical drivers and mechanisms which have brought it into being. Piping this open source intelligence into the right algorithmic environment in real-time can yield insight that would require hundreds of analysts to emulate in terms of physical data collection.

In light of the speed, scale and flux of online information, it makes sense for both private organizations and governments to use this type of technology to augment the capabilities of their analysts. Richard Hartley is co-founder and head of products at Cytora, where he works on product strategy and design, and closely collaborates with customers to define requirements and usability. He previously worked in product management at eBaoTech, a Chinese software company based in Shanghai. Richard has spoken at various conferences about the applications of new technology to risk methodologies.

Open source intelligence is a process of information gathering from public and overt sources, such as newspapers and military trade journals, that produces “actionable intelligence. Gather sources. The number of possible open source intelligence outlets is limitless. Some basic ones are newspapers, which report on things like troop and fleet movement, and even civilians who visit other countries and can make relevant observations upon return. Strategy and defense information websites, such as Jane’s Group, also provide high quality information for you to harvest.

Pick a region or topic. Monitoring all varieties of open source intelligence across regional and topical interests takes huge amounts of manpower. To effectively use open source intelligence you should focus on one region or issue at a time. This will help you to stay on top of the latest information and will allow you to develop a background understanding of intelligence items. Connect the dots. Once you have gathered your sources you need to monitor news and information in order to connect the dots.

Look, for example, at how heads of state visits coincide with arms sales. Then consider troop and fleet movement against rising tensions in various regions.

Use widely available technology such as Google Earth, Bing Maps 3D, and others to get views of important locations. Take all this kind of information and try to deduce the most likely intelligence information from it.

Test your theories. One of the best ways to test a theory that you’ve constructed on the basis of open source intelligence is to publish the theory.

You can post theories on strategy discussion forums or you can send your piece to influential military bloggers or even newspapers. Check the responses from other members of the open source intelligence community to see what the criticisms might be. It’s a satellite image showing tribesmen gathering in a remote area where none should be — the photograph so clear you can see the caliber of ammunition they are carrying.

It’s a snatched bit of conversation between two terrorist leaders, overheard by a trusted source the terrorists don’t realize is listening. Each of these sources and a multitude of others can become the tips that put an entire nation on alert, as a single tip has done from a single source just before the 10th anniversary of the Sept.

A: Simply put, it is information from anywhere that the U. It can be as basic as a diplomat reading a local newspaper and passing on something interesting to a superior in an embassy or Washington.

But it gets much more sophisticated and aggressive than that. In counterterrorism, bits and pieces of information form a messy picture like an impressionist painting. Those collecting the signs and signals look for a pattern, eventually an image, that gives them a target to go after or tells them which target to protect. A: Perhaps the spookiest is measurement intelligence, known as “MASINT,” using far-away technology to get extremely up close and personal.

The U. There are even efforts to understand what a “guilty” heartbeat pattern might be. Masint, working in combination with other kinds of intelligence-gathering, was one of the clinchers in the raid that killed Osama bin Laden. Then there is human intelligence, or “humint,” which has been around since the dawn of spycraft and is still vital.

That’s the tipster you cultivate and pay, or perhaps the unproven one who simply walks into a U. Cybertracking is a newer tool, pursuing terrorists who use computers either to attack a computer network or, more often, to organize how their own human network would launch a physical attack. A: Each of those streams of data is captured by a multibillion-dollar worldwide network of U. Sometimes these streams are collected by U.

True to its name, the Central Intelligence Agency is an “all-source” organization using all means. A: Sometimes they don’t. After a Nigerian allegedly tried to bring down a Detroit-bound airliner on Christmas Day almost two years ago, it emerged that his father had warned U. But in the bin Laden raid, a human source led to the compound in the Pakistani army town of Abbottabad.

Signals intelligence monitored for phone calls emanating from there, and found none, because bin Laden forbade them, hoping to evade detection by just such technical means.

Masint was derived from the imagery taken by drones and satellites. All of this helped to convince CIA analysts they had found their man and persuade President Barack Obama to approve a dangerous and diplomatically risky raid into Pakistani sovereign territory. A: The ever-present risk is that they won’t be.

Word of a potential plot to fly planes into U. Another agency had word terrorists might be attending flight school. Each organization kept to itself the dots of information that, when connected, could have revealed the larger pattern of a massive terrorist plot. Before raw data and human tips can be called “intelligence,” they must be analyzed, and if possible, corroborated.

There are thousands more across the 16 intelligence agencies, sifting raw data, and cross-comparing within their own agencies, and with others, to spot a pattern. Q: What does it mean to receive — and warn the public about — a credible and specific but unconfirmed threat, as in the latest case? A: A credible threat means it was heard from a trusted source, not just anyone. Specific means the U. When a threat is specific and credible but unconfirmed, that means intelligence officials haven’t been able to validate the information even though they trust the source who gave it to them.

A: Right now, teams of analysts are combing through information gleaned from one trusted source, who heard that a small group of attackers, perhaps from Pakistan, might blow up a car bomb in New York or Washington. One or all of the attackers might be from Pakistan.

Newly minted al-Qaida leader Ayman al-Zawahri might be behind it. These analysts are looking for anything to corroborate that report in the reams of information they’ve gathered tracking travelers to the U. He said he would be directing analysts to pore over everything that can be gleaned from flight and passport logs of potential foreign suspects who have traveled to the U.

The CIA operates under the U. Title 50 operations are covert, meaning the U. Other intelligence agencies, such as the eavesdropping National Security Agency and the new Cyber Command, routinely operate under Title 50 as well. A: It can feel that way. There is a favorite expression among intelligence officials, memorably if confusingly uttered by former Defense Secretary Donald H.

Rumsfeld, that captures the essence of their work:. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns — the ones we don’t know we don’t know.

How someone who has never had legitimate access to a network can learn more about that organization than most of its own employees? I have given this as a hands-on presentation at conferences and workshops in the past. In those workshops, my audience is usually made up of IT admins, company legal departments, and a handful of individuals from across the law enforcement community.

In the weeks leading up to each workshop I always request a list of attendees from the conference sponsor, which I use to gather OSINT on the attendees. On the day of the workshop, before everyone arrives, I go around and put nametags at their seats along with a notecard that is specific for each person.

On that notecard is a complete bio and profile comprised of information that I was able to get using various publically available resources. Open-source intelligence refers to finding and analyzing information from any source that is publically available. OSINT has been used for decades by the intelligence community. Only in the last 10 to 12 years has there been a methodology change. As companies evolved and technology advanced so did the competition to be the best in the market.

What followed was a variety of companies that started conducting competitive intelligence against one another — or cyberespionage as its known today. We now know that certain nation-states have entire teams devoted to conducting reconnaissance using the Internet to acquire as much intel on U.

To put it bluntly, China and Russia figured out long before we did that OSINT was a key to the success of their subsequent hacking operations that have become commonplace over the last decade. The Eye-opener During my presentation last week, I was fortunate enough to have a few C-level executives in the audience.

This is always great because I get to show them first hand how easily they can become a target of a phishing email or another social-engineering attack. I started off my presentation with infrastructural reconnaissance, which focuses on gathering information on an organization such as email addresses, DNS records, IP addresses, MX servers, files, and anything else that would be useful to an attacker.

Infrastructural recon differs from personal reconnaissance in that personal recon is exactly what it sounds like: gathering info on a person or individual. The two types of recon are all part of the overall objective anyway, especially if you plan to use a social-engineering attack. Before my presentation, I received permission from the executives to use them and the company as the target for my demo. The demo was split into two parts: Part 1 illustrating how much material on them and the company I could uncover using only their domain name.

Part 2 was me using the results from Part 1 to obtain additional info that could be used in any number of subsequent attacks. Part 1 I used Maltego to search for the domain. Coupled with its graphing libraries, Maltego, allows you to identify key relationships between information and identify previously unknown relationships between them. The email address I chose just happened to belong to an exec sitting in the front row.

Now that I had his email address, as well as the naming convention used for their email e. I next logged into LinkedIn using an unassuming account I already created specifically for this type of work and searched for the company. As expected, the LinkedIn search returned a list of people identifying themselves as employees of this company. In that list was a familiar name, it was the same executive and now I had his full name, title, complete description of his position, and a list of his coworkers and information about their positions.

Since I only had an hour, I stopped Part 1 and explained how the rest of the process might play out in a real-world malicious scenario with an attacker using this information for a phishing email. Part 2 The second part of the demo consisted of me taking a lot of the data I obtained in Part 1 IP address, domain names, etc.

I think this part of my demo was even more eye-opening because it showed the audience that several of their assets were exposed.

Within three minutes I managed to obtain a comprehensive listing of their systems complete with IP net blocks, DNS servers, exchanges server, webmail, Microsoft Lync server, customer-facing portals, and a lot more. The End I barely scratched the surface in this OSINT presentation, but in less than 20 minutes I was able to gather enough information for a mass spear-phishing attack or network intrusion.

Along the way I also uncovered information that, although not applicable to this particular objective, could have been useful had I decided to use another attack vector as a way in. Like many things, these tools and techniques can be used for good or evil. However, as security professionals we can leverage the same TTPs as the bad guys to identify weaknesses before someone exploits them.

Having information on the attacker, such as an IP address, C2 servers, moniker, etc. Tactical and Strategic Intelligence Tactical Intelligence – Intelligence that is required for the planning and conduct of tactical operations. He is operating in the here-and-now-in-your-face cultural environment. There is no room for error! Strategic Intelligence – Intelligence that is required for forming policy and military plans at national and international levels.

This is in line with more of an expanded timeframe and takes into consideration entire countries. The intelligence analysis may run months or years into the future.

During this period, errors, which are not acceptable but do still occur, are not as critical as they are at the tactical level where life and death are daily concerns. Errors at this level can be corrected with the luxury of more room for maneuver. Components of Strategic Intelligence The same analytical process that takes place at the strategic level can be applied at the tactical level. The tactical commander is faced with the same issues albeit at a smaller scale.

Strategic intelligence and tactical intelligence differ primarily in level of application but may also vary in terms and scope of detail. Information gathered as strategic intelligence may be categorized into eight components. Each of these components can further be divided into a number of subcomponents.

These components and subcomponents are not all-encompassing nor mutually exclusive. This approach is merely a means to enhance familiarization with the types of information included in strategic intelligence. Biographic Intelligence: The study of individuals of actual or potential importance, their background and personalities. Economic Intelligence: The science of production, distribution, and use of wealth– the material means of satisfying human desires.

Sociological Intelligence: The study of society, as well as the groups within society, their composition, organization, purposes and habits, and the role of the individual in relation to social institutions. Transportation Intelligence: Concerned with the operation and facilities of transportation systems in foreign countries. Telecommunications Intelligence: Concerned with the operation and facilities of civil and fixed military communications systems in foreign countries. Military Geography: Geography is the science of the description of the land, sea and air, and the distribution of plant and animal life, including man and his industries.

Military geographical intelligence is the military evaluation of all geographical factors which may in any way influence military operations. Armed Forces Intelligence: Is the integrated study of the organized land, sea, and air forces, both actual and potential, of foreign nations. Strategy: Strategic military problems of the nation in light of position, terrain, economic, political, and other factors. Tactics: Employment of weapons, employment and operations of the various arms and services, special operations training.

Political Intelligence: Political intelligence is intelligence concerning foreign and domestic policies of governments and the activities of political movements. Scientific And Technical Intelligence: Is the study and evaluation of a foreign countries scientific and technical capability and potential to supports its objective through the development of new weapons and new equipment.

The first step is the identification of intelligence gaps. Analysts translate these gaps into intelligence requirements – the second step. In the third step, the strategic debriefer fulfills those requirements. The fourth step involves preparation of an intelligence report. The fifth and last step is the preparation of an intelligence report evaluation by the originator of the requirement.

These evaluations measure the quality of the information as well as the quality of the report writing. The Intelligence Cycle is the process of developing raw information into finished intelligence for policymakers to use in decisionmaking and action.

There are five steps which constitute the Intelligence Cycle. Planning and Direction It is the beginning and the end of the cycle—the beginning because it involves drawing up specific collection requirements and the end because finished intelligence, which supports policy decisions, generates new requirements.

The whole process depends on guidance from public officials. Policymakers—the President, his aides, the National Security Council, and other major departments and agencies of government—initiate requests for intelligence. There are many sources of information, including open sources such as foreign broadcasts, newspapers, periodicals, and books.

Open source reporting is integral to CIA’s analytical capabilities. There are also secret sources of information. CIA operations officers collect such information from agents abroad and from defectors who provide information obtainable in no other way. Finally, technical collection—electronics and satellite photography—plays an indispensable role in modern intelligence, such as monitoring arms control agreements and providing direct support to military forces.

This is done through a variety of methods including decryption, language translations, and data reduction. All-Source Analysis and Production It includes integrating, evaluating, and analyzing all available data—which is often fragmented and even contradictory—and preparing intelligence products. Analysts, who are subject-matter specialists, consider the information’s reliability, validity, and relevance. They integrate data into a coherent whole, put the evaluated information in context, and produce finished intelligence that includes assessments of events and judgments about the implications of the information for the United States.

The CIA devotes the bulk of its resources to providing strategic intelligence to policymakers. It performs this important function by monitoring events, warning decisionmakers about threats to the United States, and forecasting developments.

The subjects involved may concern different regions, problems, or personalities in various contexts—political, geographic, economic, military, scientific, or biographic.

Current events, capabilities, and future trends are examined. The CIA produces numerous written reports, which may be brief—one page or less—or lengthy studies. They may involve current intelligence, which is of immediate importance, or long-range assessments.

The Agency presents some finished intelligence in oral briefings. The CIA also participates in the drafting and production of National Intelligence Estimates, which reflect the collective judgments of the Intelligence Community. Dissemination The last step, which logically feeds into the first, is the distribution of the finished intelligence to the consumers, the same policymakers whose needs initiated the intelligence requirements.

Finished intelligence is provided daily to the President and key national security advisers. The policymakers, the recipients of finished intelligence, then make decisions based on the information, and these decisions may lead to the levying of more requirements, thus triggering the Intelligence Cycle. NEO, Humanitarian, Peacekeeping, etc. Send directly to requesting office. Country Studies Can we share with the public? Databases May divulge sensitive open Open Source Center source collection capabilities.

Protect tradecraft. Intelligence Cycle Foreign Services. Can present data be sanitized? Critical information is processed ahead of lesser priority information. Credibility and Reliability. Internet in numbers. How many emails were sent during ? How many domains are there? How many Internet users are there?

Some of the numbers are snapshots taken during the year, others cover the entire period. Either way, they all contribute to giving us a better understanding of Internet in Internet population that used a tablet or e-reader.

What about the internet in ? In the last twenty years, internet access has increased across the globe causing a boom in the amount of data being produced and collected. Here are some facts about data on the internet. There are , Tweets every minute, Google processes over 2 million search queries every minute, 72 hours of new video are uploaded to YouTube every minute, More than million emails are sent every minute, Facebook processes GB of data every minute and new websites are created every minute.

These terms are usually used in the world of computing to describe disk space, or data storage space, and system memory. For instance, just a few years ago we were describing hard drive space using the term Megabytes. Today, Gigabytes is the most common term being used to describe the size of a hard drive.

In the not so distant future, Terabyte will be a common term. But what are they? This is where it gets quite confusing because there are at least three accepted definitions of each term. According to the IBM Dictionary of computing, when used to describe disk storage capacity, a megabyte is 1,, bytes in decimal notation. But when the term megabyte is used for real and virtual storage, and channel volume, 2 to the 20th power or 1,, bytes is the appropriate notation. According to the Microsoft Press Computer Dictionary, a megabyte means either 1,, bytes or 1,, bytes.

According to Eric S. Raymond in The New Hacker’s Dictionary, a megabyte is always 1,, bytes on the argument that bytes should naturally be computed in powers of two. So which definition do most people conform to? When referring to a megabyte for disk storage, the hard drive manufacturers use the standard that a megabyte is 1,, bytes. This means that when you buy an 80 Gigabyte Hard drive you will get a total of 80,,, bytes of available storage.

This is where it gets confusing because Windows uses the 1,, byte rule so when you look at the Windows drive properties an 80 Gigabyte drive will report a capacity of Anybody confused yet? With three accepted definitions, there will always be some confusion so I will try to simplify the definitions a little. The can be replaced with and still be correct using the other acceptable standards. Both of these standards are correct depending on what type of storage you are referring.

Bit: A Bit is the smallest unit of data that a computer uses. It can be used to represent two states of information, such as Yes or No. Byte: A Byte is equal to 8 Bits. A Byte can represent states of information, for example, numbers or a combination of numbers and letters. Kilobyte: A Kilobyte is approximately 1, Bytes, actually 1, Bytes depending on which definition is used. Megabyte: A Megabyte is approximately 1, Kilobytes.

In the early days of computing, a Megabyte was considered to be a large amount of data. These days with a Gigabyte hard drive on a computer being common, a Megabyte doesn’t seem like much anymore. Gigabyte: A Gigabyte is approximately 1, Megabytes. A Gigabyte is still a very common term used these days when referring to disk space or drive storage. Terabyte: A Terabyte is approximately one trillion bytes, or 1, Gigabytes.

There was a time that I never thought I would see a 1 Terabyte hard drive, now one and two terabyte drives are the normal specs for many new computers. To put it in some perspective, a Terabyte could hold about 3. A Terabyte could hold 1, copies of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Ten Terabytes could hold the printed collection of the Library of Congress. That’s a lot of data. Petabyte: A Petabyte is approximately 1, Terabytes or one million Gigabytes.

It’s hard to visualize what a Petabyte could hold. It could hold billion pages of standard printed text. It would take about million floppy disks to store the same amount of data.

Exabyte: An Exabyte is approximately 1, Petabytes. Another way to look at it is that an Exabyte is approximately one quintillion bytes or one billion Gigabytes. There is not much to compare an Exabyte to.

It has been said that 5 Exabytes would be equal to all of the words ever spoken by mankind. Zettabyte: A Zettabyte is approximately 1, Exabytes. There is nothing to compare a Zettabyte to but to say that it would take a whole lot of ones and zeroes to fill it up. Yottabyte: A Yottabyte is approximately 1, Zettabytes.

It would take approximately 11 trillion years to download a Yottabyte file from the Internet using high-power broadband.

Brontobyte: A Brontobyte is you guessed it approximately 1, Yottabytes. The only thing there is to say about a Brontobyte is that it is a 1 followed by 27 zeroes! Geopbyte: A Geopbyte is about Brontobytes! Not sure why this term was created. I’m doubting that anyone alive today will ever see a Geopbyte hard drive. One way of looking at a geopbyte is bytes! Now you should have a good understanding of megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes and everything in between. Now if we can just figure out what a WhatsAByte is It simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence.

It can exist in any form, usable or not. It does not have meaning of itself. Collecting users activity log will produces data. Internet users are generating petabytes of data every day.

Millions of users access billions of web pages every millisecond, creating hundreds of server logs with every keystroke and mouse click. Having only user log data is not useful. To give better service to user and generate money for business it is required to process raw data and collect information which can be used for providing knowledge to users and advertisers.

Based on these figures, I opine that intelligence exists out there just waiting to be tapped. Lots of data but guess what, even Google which is considered currently the best search engine, has only indexed about terabytes. Now you know why I recommend using more than one search engine with good keywords to assist. The th Military Intelligence Battalion is. IKN is a Knowledge Management tool and dynamic portal that enables Intelligence Soldiers all over the world to communicate, collaborate and investigate.

IKN serves as the Intelligence Warfighter Forum and hosts discussion forums, a single point of entry to access Intelligence Community websites, and provides a variety of public and private web applications that support the Intelligence Community and the Warfighter. Internet Detective a free online tutorial designed to help students develop the critical thinking required for their Internet research.

The tutorial offers practical advice on evaluating the quality of websites and highlights the need for care when selecting online information sources. Unlike many other event databases, the GTD includes systematic data on international as well as domestic terrorist incidents that. For each GTD incident, information is available on the date and location of the incident, the weapons used and nature of the target, the number of casualties, and — when identifiable — the identity of the perpetrator.

Globalis aims to create an understanding for similarities and differences in human societies, as well as how we influence life on the planet. This is primarily done using visual means. AfPak Daily Brief has terrific analysis from experts and publishes a daily brief of the latest news from the region.

Pakistan Maps. I have included Pakistan because of their common border and the role being played out by the insurgents. AllAfrica AllAfrica is a voice of, by and about Africa – aggregating, producing and distributing news and information items daily from over African news organizations and our own reporters to an African and global public.

Aircraft and airports are very secure and getting inside poses a high degree of risk, however, shooting down an aircraft away from the terminal would make a statement that aviation still is not that safe. Orders of battle, databases, aircraft overviews of Armed Forces all over the world are presented here. By David F. In contrast, social media Web sites today thrive on loose lips, making it even tougher to maintain operational security.

Even the smallest details shared on social media sites can play a role in security breaches. The new policy follows a seven-month review in which the Defense Department weighed the threats and benefits of allowing the wide use of emerging Internet capabilities.

It essentially seeks to manage the risks while acknowledging the Internet is proving a powerful tool for a myriad of tasks including recruiting, public relations, collaboration with a wide range of people and for communications between troops and their families.

To guard security, it allows commanders to cut off access — on a temporary basis only — if that’s required to safeguard a mission or reserve bandwidth for official use. The new directive also makes practices uniform across the entire department, in which different commands previously blocked certain things while others didn’t. Visiting sites for pornography, gambling or hate-crime activities is still prohibited on military computers.

Wennergren, deputy assistant secretary of defense for information technology. The new directive means that YouTube, MySpace and more than a dozen sites blocked by the Pentagon in May will be unblocked, he said. The Pentagon said at the time that the use of video sites in particular was straining its network and using too much of its bandwidth. But Wennergren said Friday that the move failed to stem the use of bandwidth because people just went to alternate sites.

BLOGS, like social sites, are good sources of information harvesting for intelligence purposes if you have the time and patience, especially the time. Good keyword searching will cut down on the time you spend on BLOGS if your only reason for being there is to harvest information. It is very easy to get distracted though with all the videos that appear daily and you have to be focused on the task.

I think that too much information is being passed around. A good analyst, foreign or domestic, can put together enough information from BLOGS to build a good intelligence file. However, I realize that people are not going to shut them down and too many folks out there want access to them.

Personally, I think that too much information is being passed around. Be careful how you use them. Once you post information to a Blog it is basically there forever. As of October there are , highway bridges in the United States. This includes all bridges of 20 foot or greater length that carry roadways open to the public. It does not include railroad bridges.

Source: November issue of Better Roads. They have been reporting these numbers, broken down by state, annually since Each issue contains original academic and policy relevant research articles by authors from across the globe, and topical statistical data, graphics and opinion polls. Continuity and Change. Policy Between Conflict and Rapprochement. Central Asia. Imagine being told you have to deploy to a certain country to conduct an operation.

You are told the weather is 40 degrees with a heavy overcast and it is drizzling. You can only imagine an image of what it looks like. However, with a weather cam of the area the image is vivid and in real time. Most major cities around the world have cams showing certain parts of the city which can be very helpful when planning an operation.

They can show areas to avoid and roads that support your equipment. Live Video Cam Mapping Most webcam maps provide updating still images of locations around the world.

Ivideon cams however are actually live video feeds, many of them with sound. You can therefore use the map to watch live video streams simply by selecting a marker on the map.

Ivideon customers around the world are sharing their live streams on the map. However Ivideon seems to be particularly popular in countries in Eastern Europe. All about Chinese military capabilities. This is the blog of China defense, where professional analysts and serious defense enthusiasts share findings on a rising military power.

We provide complete files of geographic names information covering countries or geopolitical areas. The files are not in customary gazetteer format, but are in a special format amenable to input into geographic information systems, databases, and spreadsheets, giving end users powerful capabilities for data analysis, manipulation, and display.

They are offered with both names formats provided within each of the files: Reading Order format Mount Everest that works well with mapping applications, and Reverse Generics format Everest, Mount that works well with gazetteer listings. Follow the links below to learn more and to begin downloading files.

Database most recent update – July 01, These Country Research Pages are provided as a courtesy to the community. You must have access along with password to enter these sites. Belarus Bangladesh Congo, Rep. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Country Files GNS Database most recent update – March 09, Database next estimated update – March 30, We provide complete files of geographic names information covering countries or geopolitical areas.

For more information, refer to September Prepositioned Country File format. You can generate maps and graphs on all kinds of statistics with ease. We want to be the web’s one-stop resource for country statistics on everything from soldiers to wall plug voltages. More than just a mere collection of various data, StateMaster goes beyond the numbers to provide you with visualization technology like pie charts, maps, graphs and scatterplots.

We also have thousands of map and flag images, state profiles, and correlations. We have stats on everything from toothless residents to percentage of carpoolers. Our database is increasing all the time, so be sure to check back with us regularly. It is intended to provide basic information and language support for personnel entering a new theater of operations. In so doing, the SAAG seeks to address the decision makers, strategic planners, academics and the media in South Asia and the world at large.

Example: go to regional feed and click on a country and see the news as it is happening for that area. Access more than 1, and counting geodata sets on population, environment, health, education, crime, politics, traffic, employment and everything in between. Move beyond pushpins on maps to intuitive and exciting visualizations of geographic data. Crime Reports By Location. Incident data is available for the past six months. Using controls you may choose to display up to 30 consecutive days’ worth of data within those six months.

Upon completion of all three training modules, you may obtain a certificate of completion. Click on a link below to go to each module. Introduction to Intelligence Analysis 1 to 2 Hours 2.

Data Collection Tradeoffs Hours 3. ECFG’s introduce the 3C knowledge necessary to operate in any environment, and then address the unique cultural features of particular societies.

Guides on a variety of countries are available for download through the AFCLC’s common access card-enabled website. FRONTLINE investigates a new war using embedded malicious code, probes and pings, and other weapons aimed directly at America’s power grid, water supply, and transportation systems. View the entire 52 minute program here in six consecutive chapters. I have yet to understand why researchers, even the serious types, tend to avoid databases. They would rather google all day long in the hopes that the seeked information will magically appear, and sometimes it does I do have to admit but for the most part it is time not well spent especially if you know your subject and a database can return better results.

The majority of databases have their own internal search engines that will cut down on the time spent searching. You also have to remember there is no such thing as the perfect search query for any of the search engines. Investigative Resource Center.

Put together by US-based investigative consultancy IRI, this site contains links to global open sources, searchable by category and region.

Here you can find links to corporate and court records, government sites and national newspapers. I find IRC particularly useful for finding newspaper and media sites that are not covered by the big commercial databases. OpenCorporates The remit of this site is to make corporate data more accessible and transparent. OpenCorporates provides basic information on around 85 million companies and its directors in more than jurisdictions, with links to company registry data, where available.

It is by no means comprehensive, Swiss and German companies are missing, for example, but you can search for companies in many offshore jurisdictions, such as Cyprus, Liechtenstein and Panama. Getting sources of Data is always a problem when tackling a statistical or data mining project.

Speciality statistical data on all kinds of subjects, from countries GDP to levels of blindness. Wayback Machine The Internet Archive is building a digital library of Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form. Widw data Coverage We’re collecting all the numerical data in the world. Legacy documents are added as they become available in electronic format. The articles published by each author are carefully inspected to create a personalized report. This service covers free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals.

We aim to cover all subjects and languages. There are now journals in the directory. Currently journals are searchable at article level. The materials cover international. Several senior bosses from each of the principal regional organized crime camps in Mexico were captured or killed during targeted operations involving federal troops. These successes accelerated the Balkanization of each camp while greatly shifting the balance of power among individual crime groups.

The results of the government’s efforts in will lead to a reorganization of each regional camp in , as well as maintaining, if not accelerating, the tempo of the decentralization of organized crime in Mexico. It is likely that Balkanization will lead to new regional. It should be noted that while each regional camp may experience substantial fragmentation in and lose control over criminal activities in specific geographic areas — such as the production of illicit drugs, extortion, fuel theft and kidnapping — this will not equate to an overall decline in international drug trafficking.

In fact, each regional camp in Mexico will likely continue to expand its respective international drug supply chains to overseas markets such as Europe and Asia, as well as control of operations in South America.

Organized Crime in Sinaloa State Sinaloa-based organized crime bore the brunt of targeted government operations in , with the February capture of top Sinaloa Federation leader Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman Loera in Mazatlan, Sinaloa state, being the highest-profile incident. Each of the major Sinaloa crime groups suffered losses among its senior leadership. On Oct. In addition to these arrests, numerous lieutenants for these leaders and for other high-ranking Sinaloa crime bosses fell at the hands of authorities as well.

Interestingly, none of the stated arrests altered the broader trends surrounding each group or triggered internal rifts that would likely have led to substantial escalations in violence, though organizational challenges such as those experienced by the Sinaloa Federation since were likely magnified. This dynamic suggests that the continued decentralization of each group had lessened the criticality of each major crime boss within his respective organization.

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